Academic journal article Economics & Sociology

Quantification of Relationship between Cardiovascular Diseases Mortality Rate and Selected Socio-Economic Indicators - Comparative Analysis of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic

Academic journal article Economics & Sociology

Quantification of Relationship between Cardiovascular Diseases Mortality Rate and Selected Socio-Economic Indicators - Comparative Analysis of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic

Article excerpt

Introduction

The process of demographic aging has affected all the countries. It is estimated that the healthcare costs will increase in many countries in the next decades. As some studies state, demographic factors have only partial influence on the healthcare costs development (Medeiros & Schwierz, 2013). Technological and institutional improvements also represent the main factors of healthcare costs. The current financing of health system in the Slovak Republic and in the Czech Republic is very sensitive of the impacts on demographic aging processes. In the both countries, a strong dependency on public financing of healthcare sector represents a critical point of maintaining health system. The fundamental health determinants and health behaviour of population play a very important role in this entire process too.

In the Slovak Republic, avoidable mortality remains well above an average level of the European Union in spite of its improvements. Mortality after hospitalisation due to heart attack or stroke has decreased for the last decades and it signalises an improvement of acute healthcare. The Czech Republic has much better health results than many economies of the central and eastern Europe, especially in the parameters such as a rate of surviving after hospitalisation due to ischaemic stroke is or avoidable mortality. However, it lags behind the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries average. There are significant differences in the health results among the regions of the both countries. The Czech Republic health system costs are higher as compared with the Slovak Republic costs at a level of 1,797 EUR per inhabitant. On the other hand, the Slovak Republic spends less financial resources on the health system than a majority of the European Union countries in the absolute expression, as well as in a gross domestic product ratio. In 2015, it spent 1,538 EUR per inhabitant, whilst the European Union average lies at a level of 2,797 EUR per inhabitant. It represents a share of 6.9 % of gross domestic product in comparison to a share of 9.9 % within the entire European Union. The healthcare costs have kept stable position since the 2008 economic crisis in the Czech Republic, while a rate of the public costs of the total costs at a level of 82.4 % belongs to the highest ones among the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries and the Slovak Republic holds very similar position with a level of 80 %.

Many behavioural risk factors are frequent in the population groups with a low level of education or income in the Slovak Republic. The occurrence of regular smoking is almost of two thirds higher in the population group with the lowest level of education in comparison with the group with the highest education. The total alcohol consumption in the Slovak Republic is close to the European Union average with a level of 10.2 l per adult person in 2015. Also, alcohol consumption remains on a high level in the Czech Republic, while it influences both, premature morbidity and mortality. It has kept a slightly increasing tendency in the last three decades, while in 2015, this trend stands at a level of 11.5 l per adult person in the Czech Republic. There is to note that an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries average level is 9 l per adult person (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2017). Risky behaviour and regular smoking occur in the similar population groups in the Czech Republic as well as in the Slovak Republic. Both the risk behaviour and an influence of the risk environment, where alcohol consumption, smoking and obesity belong, are very close to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries average, or it exceeds this level. In the Czech Republic, life expectancy could be prolonged of almost 3.5 years by limitation of risk behaviour on a healthy level according to the European Commission (2015). …

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