Academic journal article International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology

Reliability and Validity of the Basic Depression Questionnaire

Academic journal article International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology

Reliability and Validity of the Basic Depression Questionnaire

Article excerpt

Depressive disorders refer to mental problems with the highest prevalence around the world, and its personal and social cost is very high. According to World Health Organization (WHO) statistics, 300 million people in the world (4.2% of the global population and 5.2% of the Spanish population) suffered depression in 2015 (World Health Organization WHO, 2017). In addition, the level of depression remained stable over time in several European samples (Schürmann & Margraf, 2018). Moreover, it is the main cause of disability as well as strongly related to suicides, especially in cases where residual symptomatology is present (Castellón Leal et al., 2016; Teismann et al., 2018).

According to symptomatology, low mood and anhedonia occupy the most important place in depressive disorders. Such disorders also include physical symptoms (e.g., fatigue, insomnia, weight gain), cognitive symptoms (e.g., loss of concentration, suicidal ideation, feelings of guilt) and motor syndromes (e.g., agitation or psychomotor retardation; American Psychiatric Association APA, 2013). For diagnosis, the duration of these symptoms must be present for a minimum of two weeks and at least one of them must be a depressive mood or loss of interest and must cause clinically significant discomfort (American Psychiatric Association APA, 2013). When evaluating depression, it is important to highlight the gender differences regarding symptomatology and prevalence (Londoño, Peñate, & González, 2016).

In terms of comorbidity, depression is highly related with negative emotions like anger and fear along with other psychological alterations-mainly anxiety disorders (Agudelo, Buela-Casal, & Spielberger, 2007). The tripartite model from Clark and Watson (1991), which has been set up on the basis of these assumptions, shows that some symptoms of depression, such as insomnia, poor concentration, tiredness, negative affectivity, and irritability, are common with the symptoms of anxiety disorders (Eysenck & Fajkowska, 2018). The principal difference is that there may be positive affect in case of anxiety, but not so in depression. Furthermore, there are psychosomatic elements, which are often confused with this disorder, as well as chronic disease symptoms (Spielberger, Carretero-Dios, De los Santos-Roig, & Buela-Casal, 2002a, 2002b).

In a psychometric analysis of the Response to Anxiety Questionnaire, Taylor, Grant, Frosio, Kraft, and White (2018) have identified comorbidity between anxiety and depression with symptoms like repetitive negative thinking, especially rumination and hopelessness. Additionally, in a global survey carried out in Europe and America (n = 15,499), patients of depression are highly related (r = .65) with suffering later episodes of generalized anxiety disorder (de Jonge et al., 2017).

The presence of comorbidity between depression and anxiety can lead to difficulties while evaluating depressive disorders. Moreover, it is necessary to have valid and reliable diagnostic instruments in each specific context (Agudelo et al., 2007; Taylor, Grant, Frosio, Kraft, & White, 2018). There are a lot of instruments to evaluate depression with adequate psychometric properties both for adults (Senín-Calderón, Perona-Garcelán, Ruíz-Veguilla, & Rodríguez-Testal, 2016) as well as children (e.g., Pineda, Martín-Vivar, Sandín, & Piqueras, 2018). Although there are many scales to assess depression, they usually mix depressive symptoms with anxiety symptomatology or common symptoms, thus making the diagnosis difficult (Peñate, Bello, García, Rovella, & Del Pino-Sedeño, 2014).

The Basic Depression Questionnaire (Cuestionario Básico de Depresión, CBD; Peñate, 2001b) is one of the instruments created in Spain and designed to isolate all specific depression symptoms. This questionnaire stresses specific questions on this disease to avoid comorbidity problems with anxiety disorders. The instrument explores three depression areas-sadness, anhedonia, and low self-esteem-although it has a monofactorial structure (Peñate, 2001a, 2001c). …

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