Academic journal article The Innovation Journal

Factors and Factor Clusters Most Influential in Introduction and Global Fate of Innovations and Their Organizations – IV

Academic journal article The Innovation Journal

Factors and Factor Clusters Most Influential in Introduction and Global Fate of Innovations and Their Organizations – IV

Article excerpt

Introduction3

Limited work has been published on the factors key to the successful introduction (creation/adoption), implementation, achieving of objectives and survival/termination of I&O. In the public sector, Berry and Berry (2013) suggested that the factors involved in the dissemination of innovation are political, economic and social. In terms of the adoption of innovations, de Vries, Bekker and Tummers (2015: 147) and Berry and Berry (2013) suggested, slightly differently, that the major antecedents of innovation are external and internal. Their definitions of internal and external are different from those used in this paper, however. De Vries, Bekker and Tummers (2015) defined four types of innovation: process (administrative, technological), product or service, governance and conceptual. Berry and Berry (2013) defined external in diffusion terms as national interaction or regional diffusion and internal as related to the jurisdiction. Glor (2014a) suggested that employees, functions, survival and possibly other not yet specified factors are important. This paper examines empirically three types of factors influencing the introduction and survival/termination of I&O-two types of external factors and one type of internal factor. The innovations examined are policy/program innovations, while organizations are the administrative units delivering them.4 The paper uses an instrument developed for the purpose that quantifies the factors. It assesses 550 paired statements, organized into six factors influencing the introduction and survival/termination of the sub-population (all) income security innovations introduced by the GoS, 1971-82. It explores whether the factors predicted the introduction and fate of the I&O.

Innovation refers to the conception and implementation for the first, second or third time in a government's community of significant new services, ideas or ways of doing things as policy in order to improve or reform them and involves taking risks (Glor, 1997: 4). This paper studies the first time. This definition is different from that of Walker (1969) and Rogers and Kim (1985), who defined innovation as anything perceived by the innovators and their organizations as new; for example, "a program or policy which is new to the states adopting it, no matter how old the program may be or how many other states may have adopted it" (Walker, 1969: 881). Osborne (1998) defined "total innovation," as innovations new to the innovating organization and offering a new service to a new group. Glor added the qualifications about taking risks and the focus on invention and early adoption. Rogers (1995) and Walker (1969) were interested in dissemination, here it is invention and early adoption, the factors that lead to its introduction and influence its fate. Berry and Berry (2013) suggested that definitions focused on the first few adopters were used more before 1990 and that the focus has been primarily on dissemination since then. In my opinion, this change has been due to the promotion of New Public Management and financial constraint as innovation. Including laggards shifts the focus to dissemination of innovation, as opposed to its introduction. Although study of dissemination is important, there is still much to learn about invention and early adoption and-a new focus-on the fate of I&O. Organization refers to a group of persons united for a purpose; in this case, an organizational unit and people structured to deliver an innovation. This paper studies the five organizations delivering five innovations introduced for the first time in Canada and USA. The approach has potential to inform understanding of risks of innovating and fate of early adopters. A government community is the group to which a government compares itself and/or with which it works. The GoS's community was Canadian provinces, Government of Canada (G°C) and American state and federal governments.

Factors Identified in the Literature. …

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