Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Elements and Methods of Organization, Design and Management of Extracurricular Sports Activities

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Elements and Methods of Organization, Design and Management of Extracurricular Sports Activities

Article excerpt

Introduction

In Italy, during the school year, many secondary high schools organize sports activities in extracurricular time, which take the form of an expansion of the didactic curriculum proposals of the Departments of Physical and Sport Sciences. Activities are frequently organized according to traditional teaching methods risking to present limits that affect their potential. Often these activities come together in the Student Sports Games and aim to achieve performance goals or to participate in championships and tournaments. To avoid that these activities remain stable, it would be opportune to structure methodologically a stimulating path that is useful for a conscious participation of each student.

The objective of this study is to identify innovative methodologies for the organization of sports activities in extracurricular time, in secondary high schools. The method of documentary and theoretical archive research with an interpretative deductive approach consulting the reference literature.

Reference theoretical features

In this perspective, the concept of learning evolves with explicit references to the theories of Ausubel (1963; 1968), which operates a meticulous distinction between mechanical learning and meaningful learning (Varisco, 1995).The first one occurs when the student makes little or no effort to associate the new information with the significant concepts he already has or when the previous knowledge is limited and / or poorly structured. On the other hand, meaningful learning occurs when the learner has a considerable and above all conscious commitment, in order to correlate and incorporate the new information into his / her knowledge structure (Novak, 2001). Learning, in the teaching-motor field, would become "located": it is structured thanks to social co-participation. The classical and reductionist conception of the simple transmission of knowledge is overcome in order to highlight the role of the circumstances in which the learner is inserted. Therefore, even if the protagonist of learning is the individual, the process of construction of knowledge is realized through a dense interchange with the social context (Lave & Wenger, 2006). Located Learning Episodes (EAS) (Rivoltella, 2013) should be considered as an integral and integrated approach to teaching, as part of the didactic action. An EAS is a portion of didactic action, or the minimum unit of which the teaching activity of the teacher is composed in the context. It is structured in three phases: anticipatory (in which the teacher provides the stimulus), operative (which requires a production by the students for the resolution of the stimulus situation) and restructuring (to produce metacognitive reflections). In the physical and sports field, it is essential to use strategies that go beyond traditional teaching (Raiola et al., 2018, Raiola, 2013, 2017). Learning theories can provide an important starting point for teachers of physical and sports sciences, who have the possibility to structure their didactic actions following flexible schemes and referring to innovative approaches. Especially in extracurricular activities, where it is necessary to adopt a playful and engaging approach for the student. In particular, the Teaching Games for Understanding methodology (Bunker and Thorpe, 1982) was born as an alternative to traditional approaches (Bunker and Thorpe, 1982). The TGfU is based on situated learning situations (Kirk & MacPhail, 2002), as it foresees neglecting the technical aspects of sports activities and at the same time dwelling on the teaching of the rules of the game to be played through cooperative learning and problem solving actions (Griffin & Butler, 2005).

The objective of this study is to identify innovative methodologies for the organization of sports activities in extracurricular time in secondary high schools.

Student Sports Games: organizational, technical and educational aspects

In Italy, the Student Sports Games are the privileged means for the dissemination of start-up paths for sports. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.