Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Boredom Proneness and Private Self-Consciousness among a Sample of University Students

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Boredom Proneness and Private Self-Consciousness among a Sample of University Students

Article excerpt

Boredom proneness is a phenomenon that has become widespread among students at different academic levels. The boredom is known as the aversion of repeated experience or routine work (Zuckerman, 1979); also known as monotony, lack of motivation and a sense of lack of interest in private life (Sundberg, Latkin, Farmer, & Saoud, 1991); As a state of relatively low excitement and dissatisfaction due to an insufficiently stirring position (Mikulás & Vodanovich, 1993).

Studies indicate that the causes of boredom may be external (boredom as a condition) or internal (boredom as an attribute) (Martin, Sadlo, & Stew, 2006). In their interpretation of boredom, some researchers distinguish between the causes of boredom within the individual (i.e., personality), the causes that arise outside the individual (i.e., external circumstances) and the reasons for the individual's interaction with the environment (Fisher, 1993). Others believe that people at high risk of boredom are less psychologically developed and thus less able to cope with different situations in life (Watt & Vodanovich, 1999). According to a third group of researchers, people become unusually bored in their lives when they settle desired life goals with undesirable ones (Bargdill, 1999).

On the other hand, boredom is associated with many psychological and social variables. Self-efficacy (Jaradat, 2018); self-efficacy (Bamer & Sundberg, 1986); substance abuse (O'Connor, Berry, Morrison, & Brown, 1995); and negative emotion (Barnett & Klitzing, 2006).

A self-consciousness is a term that refers to individuals' tendency to focus their attention on themselves. They have a lot of introspection, are interested in showing themselves, and are interested in other appreciation and praise. The self-consciousness consists of two dimensions: the private self-consciousness, where the attention of the individual focuses on the hidden aspects of the same as internal thoughts and feelings, and the general selfconsciousness, where the focus of the individual attention to itself as a social issue, Others see it. Davis and Franzoi (1991) assumed that people differed in the amount of time they spent engaging themselves, and that these differences between individuals were rather stable and the independent of the effects of the environment. As with the issue of the need for knowledge, the interest of researchers remained a little self-consciousness until Fenigstein, Scheier, and Buss (1975) developed a tool for measuring it, and the self-consciousness became the subject of many empirical studies. The studies of the empirical analysis of the measure of selfconsciousness have indicated the dominance ofthree factors: private self-consciousness, general self-consciousness, and social anxiety.

Previous studies

Studies examining the boredom proneness among university students include the study ofVodanovich, Weddle, and Piotrowski (1997) which examined the relationship between boredom proneness and internal and external work values. The results indicated that individuals with high scores on the boredom scale was significantly higher on the external labor values scale, while those with lower scores on the exposure scale was significantly higher on the internal labor values scale.

The study of Rupp and Vodanovich (1997) boredom proneness effects on various areas of anger and aggression in 293 university students. A result indicated that the degrees of exposure to high total boredom were associated with degrees of aggression and high total anger. Individuals with high levels of boredom had significantly higher scores after the hostility of the aggression scale, as well as higher scores on three dimensions ofthe anger-expressing scale. It was also found that after the internal and external stimulation ofthe scale of boredom had a marked effect on anger and aggression compared to the total score on the scale of boredom proneness.

The Vodanovich and Watt (1999) study sought to explore the relationship between time regulation and boredom proneness in two cultures. …

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