Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Young Students' Health Attitudes

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Young Students' Health Attitudes

Article excerpt

Introduction

People's attitudes towards their health can change over the life course and vary according to socially accepted values(Bendíková,Dobay, 2017).

Public health can be distinguished from individual health. Accordingly, attitudes towards public and individual health can also be distinguished. Over time, human health has been studied by physicians, hygienists, biologists, psychologists and sociologists(Eganov, A.V. 2018).Health issues continue to beof interest to scientists in the search for ways to increase the human lifespan. However, a majority of studies focusing on health promotion and longevity utilized adult samples. Only in recent years have specialists taken a particular interest in the health of children, adolescents and young students(Lubysheva, L., 2017, Lisitsyin, Yu.P., 1986,CurrieC., 2004, 2000 ).

There are several reasons that studies of young students' attitude to their health are needed. First, is the historically conditioned change in pathology that is characterized today by the prevailing non-infectious factors of morbidity and mortality in the population in general and in youth in particular. Since the 1970s, patterns of morbidity and mortality have been increasingly characterized by the increased incidence/prevalence of non-infectious diseases (cardiovascular and oncological diseases), as well as by growing numbers of injuries and accidents (Vishnevskiy A.G., 1997)

Second, modern youth typically have a relatively low level of health culture and health behaviour. The health culture includes intellectual component (knowledge and values), motivational component (needs, motivation and attitude) and behavioural component (activity in the field of health) (Bendíková, 2016).

Third, recently the functioning of the national health care system in Russia has significantly changed. Namely, many kinds of medical service have become commercial, and the private health-care spending has become more common (Zhuravlyova I.V., 2006).

According to Shishkin et al. (2009), the private health-care spending were quickly growing both in the 1990s when the state financing was reduced, and in the 2000s when the state expenditures increased. Almost half of private health-care spending is represented with the expenditures for pharmaceuticals and approximately one third of expenditures are spent on medical services. Over half of the expenditures for medical services (51.0%) are direct payments for the provided services, 28.0% of payments are provided by medical insurance funds, and 21.0% are informal payments(Shishkin et al., 2009).

Domestic health care policy focuses on mass diseases and people susceptible to them. However, healthy people are out of range of the health care system activity (Zhuravlyova I.V., 2012).

Health care development financing was reduced at precisely the moment when the transition to the new health care strategies required a significant increase of investment. While in many European countries the share of health-care spending increased by two or three times, Russia has suffered a decrease in health care system financing.

Privatization of health care, reduced financing of health care, and increased morbidity and mortality among youth have influenced the students' health . As students are significant social group of the Russian society, their health is not only an indicator of the social and economic development of Russia, but is also a measure of the future labor, economic and cultural potential of society. In this respect, research examining youths' health attitudes is of a great scientific and social importance.

Aims-to study indices specifying students' attitude to their health.

Materials & Methods

The study was carried out as part of the international research project 'Students' Health' in 2009-2011. The study involved first- to fourth-year students at Ural State University of Physical Education and South Ural State University, as well as first- and second-year students of the State Institution Vocational School -17 (Professionalnylitsey -17) located in Qostanay (Republic of Kazakstan). …

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