Academic journal article International Journal of Psychology Research

Path towards an Impromptu Shooting in an Indimdval with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Academic journal article International Journal of Psychology Research

Path towards an Impromptu Shooting in an Indimdval with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Article excerpt

Introduction

Moyers (1968) defined aggression as "a behavior that causes (or leads to) harm, damage or destruction of another organism" (pp. 402). Since 1964, many different two-factor subtypes of aggression have been proposed. For instance, Feshbach (1964) was one of the strongest proponents of a two-factor model suggesting such terms as 'proactive' and 'reactive' types of aggression. A review of the literature pertaining to the two factor model of aggression from 1964 to the present would be a lengthy endeavor, so only certain studies will be presented that directly pertain to threat assessment.

Meloy (2006) summarized the literature regarding affective and predatory violence. He stated that affective violence was also referred to as expressive, emotional, reactive, hostile or as impulsive violence. Furthermore, predatory violence was also known as premeditated, cold-blooded, instrumental and proactive violence. Within a forensic context, Meloy (2006) developed 10 different criteria, with definitions and good inter-rater reliability that distinguished affective from planned violence. For instance, Meloy (2006) summarized that affective violence was characterized as a reactive and immediate type of violence that involved intense autonomic arousal, a subjective feeling of emotion accompanied by an internal or external perception of threat. Usually, the behavioral expression of this type of violence is time-limited, preceded by public posturing, with heightened and diffused awareness, a possible displacement of the target, and with the overall goal being defensive for threat reduction. On the other hand, predatory violence is defined as planned or purposeful violence, characterized by minimal or no autonomic arousal, no conscious emotion or perceived threat involving no target displacement and a time-limited sequence. Also, it involves variable goals, could be preceded by a private ritual and primarily a cognitive task with a heightened but focused awareness.

Meloy (2006) also summarized information regarding neurochemistry, neuropsychological and psychophysiological ways where affective and predatory aggression differ. For affective aggression, Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA), serotonin and phenytoin inhibited this pattern, and dopamine had mixed results, while they had no effect on predatory aggression. However, predatory aggression was facilitated by cholinergic stimulation. Furthermore, for affective aggression, executive functioning impairment does play a role while this was not the case for predatory aggression. Finally, affective aggression demonstrated electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities, while Meloy cites Gottman and colleagues (1995) who reported heart rate deceleration among a group of domestic batters.

Other research has focused on trying to distinguish "clinical profiles" obtained from objective test measures that could be differentially associated with each type of violence. Douglas (2010) summarized the research in this area and reported "a generalized pattern of hyperreactivity associated with reactive aggression. Dysfunctional reactivity is evidenced across emotional, neuropsychological, and psychophysiological domains, and is associated with poor behavioural control." (Douglas, 2010, pp. 41). Douglas goes on to state that instrumental aggression does not evidence the above deficits but "appears to be characterized by a personality profile of antisocial, hostile, psychopathic, narcissistic, and aggressive-sadistic traits". (Douglas, 2010, pp. 41).

Within a threat assessment context, and very similar to Meloy (2006), Calhoun and Weston (2013) used the concepts of "impromptu" for affective violence and "planned" for predatory violence. They described impromptu violence as spontaneous, unplanned and emotionally-driven because of the interaction between the individual and the target person. Especially since it develops quickly and is emotionally-driven, if a weapon is used it is usually a weapon of opportunity and usually results in less-fatal violence. …

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