Aristophanes' Birds


Aristophanes (ăr´Ĭstŏf´ənēz), c.448 BC–c.388 BC, Greek playwright, Athenian comic poet, greatest of the ancient writers of comedy. His plays, the only full extant samples of the Greek Old Comedy, mix political, social, and literary satire. The direct attack on persons, the severity of invective, and the burlesque extravagances made the plays fitting for the festival of Dionysus. Aristophanes was conservative in all things, hence he distrusted sophistry and Socrates alike, satirized Euripides' art as degenerate, and deplored the tendency to excessive imperialism that ruined Athens in the Syracusan expedition. The typical plan of an Aristophanic comedy is simple—the protagonist undertakes seriously some preposterous project, and the play is an elaboration of his success or failure. Despite the absurdity of the situation, Aristophanes' characters are real as types; their verisimilitude comes from their perfectly natural behavior in unnatural circumstances. Aristophanes' Greek is exceptionally beautiful, and many of his choruses are among the finest lyric pieces in Greek literature. His careful diction and his ability to characterize in a few words are remarkable, and he shows himself especially astute in his parodies of Euripides. Eleven of his plays survive: The Acharnians (425 BC), an attack on the Peloponnesian War; The Knights (424), a political satire on the demagoguery of the period; The Clouds (423), a satire on the sophists and on Socrates; The Wasps (422), a satire on the Athenian passion for litigation; The Peace (421), a defense of the Peace of Nicias; The Birds (414), an escape into an amazing imaginary kingdom; Lysistrata (411), in which the Athenian women boycott their husbands to end a war; The Thesmophoriazusae or The Women at Demeter's Festival (411), in which the women conspire to ruin Euripides because of his misogyny; The Frogs (405), a literary satire involving Aeschylus and Euripides; The Ecclesiazusae or The Women in Politics (c.392), in which the women take over the government; and Plutus (388), in which the blind god of wealth recovers his eyesight and distributes the gifts of fortune more equitably.

See his plays (ed. by M. Hadas, 1962, 1984); studies by G. Murray (1933, repr. 1964), C. Whitman (1964), K. J. Dover (1972), and V. Ehrenberg (new ed. 1974).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2015, The Columbia University Press.

Aristophanes' Birds: Selected full-text books and articles

Birds; Lysistrata; Assembly-Women; Wealth By Aristophanes; Stephen Halliwell Clarendon Press, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Includes "Birds" in English
Birds By Aristophanes; Nan Dunbar Clarendon Press, 1998
Librarian’s tip: Includes background and commentary in English plus the text of the play in Greek
Aristophanes: An Author for the Stage By Carlo Ferdinando Russo Routledge, 1997
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 8 "Birds"
Aristophanes and Athens: An Introduction to the Plays By Douglas M. MacDowell Oxford University Press, 1995
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 9 "Birds"
Oxford Readings in Aristophanes By Erich Segal Oxford University Press, 1996
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 11 "Some Aspects of Aristophanes' Dramatic Art in the Birds"
The City as Comedy: Society and Representation in Athenian Drama By Gregory W. Dobrov University of North Carolina Press, 1997
Librarian’s tip: "Utopianism and the Sophistic City in Aristophanes' Birds" begins on p. 23 and "Performing the City in Birds" begins on p. 75
Pericles on Stage: Political Comedy in Aristophanes' Early Plays By Michael Vickers University of Texas Press, 1997
Librarian’s tip: "Alcibiades at Sparta: Aristophanes' Birds I" begins on p. 154 and "Pericles at Sparta: Aristophanes' Birds II" begins on p. 171
Figures of Play: Greek Drama and Metafictional Poetics By Gregory W. Dobrov Oxford University Press, 2001
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 7 "Tereus: Sophokles' Tereus and Aristophanes' Birds"
Aristophanes' Old-And-New Comedy By Kenneth J. Reckford University of North Carolina Press, vol.1, 1987
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 29 "Utopia Unlimited"
The Thinker as Artist: From Homer to Plato & Aristotle By George Anastaplo Ohio University Press, 1997
Librarian’s tip: "On the Birds" begins on p. 157
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