Jane Austen

Jane Austen (ô´stən), 1775–1817, English novelist. The daughter of a clergyman, she spent the first 25 years of her life at "Steventon," her father's Hampshire vicarage. Here her first novels, Pride and Prejudice,Sense and Sensibility, and Northanger Abbey, were written, although they were not published until much later. On her father's retirement in 1801, the family moved to Bath for several years and then to Southampton, settling finally at Chawton Cottage, near Alton, Hampshire, which was Jane's home for the rest of her life.

Northanger Abbey, a satire on the Gothic romance, was sold to a publisher for £10 in 1803, but as it was not published, was bought back by members of the family and was finally issued posthumously. The novels published in Austen's lifetime were Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814), and Emma (1816). Persuasion was issued in 1818 with Northanger Abbey. The author's name did not appear on any of her title pages, and although her own friends knew of her authorship, she received little public recognition in her lifetime.

Jane Austen's novels are comedies of manners that depict the self-contained world of provincial ladies and gentlemen. Most of her works revolve around the delicate business of providing husbands for marriageable daughters. She is particularly noted for her vivid delineations and lively interplay of character, her superb sense of comic irony, and her moral firmness. She ridicules the silly, the affected, and the stupid, ranging in her satire from light portraiture in her early works to more scornful exposures in her later novels. Her writing was subjected to the most careful polishing. She was quite aware of her special excellences and limitations, comparing herself to a miniaturist. Today she is regarded as one of the great masters of the English novel. Her minor works include her Juvenilia, the novel Lady Susan, and the fragments The Watsons and Sanditon.

See her letters (4th ed., ed. by D. La Faye, 2011); biographies by J. A. Hodge (1972), J. Halperin (1986), P. Honan (1988), V. G. Myer (1997), D. Nokes (1997), C. Tomalin (1997), C. Shields (2001), and P. Byrne (2013); studies by A. W. Litz (1965), F. W. Bradbook (1966), A. M. Duckworth (1971), K. Kroeber (1971), F. B. Pinion (1973), S. M. Tave (1973), C. Johnson (1988), C. Harman (2010), R. M. Brownstein (2011), R. and L. Adkins (2013), and J. Barchas (2013).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2015, The Columbia University Press.

Jane Austen: Selected full-text books and articles

A Companion to Jane Austen By Claudia L. Johnson; Clara Tuite Wiley-Blackwell, 2009
Student Companion to Jane Austen By Debra Teachman Greenwood Press, 2000
The Complete Novels of Jane Austen By Jane Austen Modern Library, 1933
FREE! Love & Friendship, and Other Early Works By Jane Austen Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1922
A Companion to Jane Austen Studies By Robert Thomas Lambdin; Laura Cooner Lambdin Greenwood Press, 2000
Jane Austen and the Fiction of Her Time By Mary Waldron Cambridge University Press, 1999
Recreating Jane Austen By John Wiltshire Cambridge University Press, 2001
Jane Austen and the Romantic Poets By William Deresiewicz Columbia University Press, 2004
The Postcolonial Jane Austen By You-Me Park; Rajeswari Sunder Rajan Routledge, 2000
Jane Austen and Eighteenth-Century Courtesy Books By Penelope Joan Fritzer Greenwood Press, 1997
A Jane Austen Encyclopedia By Paul Poplawski Greenwood, 1998
Jane Austen's Letters By Jane Austen; Deirdre Le Faye Oxford University Press, 1995 (3rd edition)
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