The Stranger

Camus, Albert

Albert Camus (älbĕr´ kämü´), 1913–60, French writer, b. Mondovi (now Dréan). Camus was one of the most important authors and thinkers of the 20th cent. While a philosophy student at the Univ. of Algiers (grad. 1936), he formed a theater group and adapted, directed, and acted in plays. He became active in social reform and was briefly a member of the Communist party. He worked as a reporter for an Algiers newspaper, and shortly after his essay Noces [weddings] appeared (1939), he went (1940) to Paris and found work as a journalist. In World War II he joined the French resistance and was principal editor of the underground paper Combat.

Noted for his vigorous, concise, and lucid style, Camus soon gained recognition as a major literary figure. His belief that man's condition is absurd identified him with the existentialists (see existentialism), but he denied allegiance to that group; his works express rather a courageous humanism. The characters in his novels and plays, although keenly aware of the meaninglessness of the human condition, assert their humanity by rebelling against their circumstances.

The essay Le Mythe de Sisyphe (1942, tr. The Myth of Sisyphus, 1955) formulates his theory of the absurd and is the philosophical basis of his novel L'Étranger (1942, tr. The Stranger, 1946, The Outsider, 2013) and of his plays Le Malentendu (1944, tr. Cross Purpose, 1948) and Caligula (1944, tr. 1948). L'Étranger brought him the admiration and friendship of Jean-Paul Sartre, and turned Camus from a journalist into a well-known novelist and intellectual. The essay L'Homme révolté (1951, tr. The Rebel, 1954), dealing with historical, spiritual, and political rebellion, treats themes found in the novels La Peste (1947, tr. The Plague, 1948) and La Chute (1956, tr. The Fall, 1957). Other works include the plays L'État de siège (1948, tr. State of Siege, 1958) and Les Justes (1950, tr. The Just Assassins, 1958), journalistic essays, and stories. Camus was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1957. The last book he published in his lifetime was Chroniques algériennes (1958, tr. Algerian Chronicles, 2013), a group of articles that express conflicted feelings regarding his homeland—supporting Arab political rights but opposing Algerian independence. The first draft of an autobiographical novel, found in a briefcase after his death in a car crash, was published as Le Premier Homme (1994, tr. The First Man, 1995).

See Camus at Combat: Writing 1944–1947, ed. by J. Levi-Valensi (2007); his Notebooks: 1935–1951, (2 vol., tr. 1963–65, repr. 1998) and Notebooks: 1951–1959 (tr. 2008); C. Camus (his daughter), Albert Camus: Solitude and Solidarity (tr. 2012); biographies by H. Lottman (1979) and O. Todd (1997); R. Zaretsky, Albert Camus: Elements of a Life (2010); studies by G. Brée (4th ed. 1972), D. Lazere (1973), L. Braun (1974), P. McCarthy (1982), B. L. Knapp, ed. (1988), D. Sprintzen (1988), H. Bloom, ed. (1989, repr. 2003), P. Thody (1989), D. R. Ellison (1990), J. McBride (1992), C. S. Brosman (2001), M. Longstaffe (2007), and A. Kaplan (2016).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

The Stranger: Selected full-text books and articles

The Stranger By Albert Camus; Stuart Gilbert Vintage Books, 1954
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Camus: A Critical Examination By David Sprintzen Temple University Press, 1988
Librarian's tip: Chap. 3 "The Stranger"
Classic Cult Fiction: A Companion to Popular Cult Literature By Thomas Reed Whissen Greenwood Press, 1992
Librarian's tip: Discussion of The Stranger begins on p. 237
The Dynamics of the Absurd in the Existentialist Novel By Richard E. Baker Peter Lang, 1993
Librarian's tip: Chap. IV "The Stranger; The Myth of Sisyphus"
Meaning and Being in Myth By Norman Austin Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990
Librarian's tip: Chap. 7 "The Empirical Stranger"
The Thought and Art of Albert Camus By Thomas Hanna Henry Regnery, 1958
Librarian's tip: "The Stranger: A Novel" begins on p. 35
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