Franz Kafka

Franz Kafka (fränts käf´kä), 1883–1924, German-language novelist, b. Prague. Along with Joyce, Kafka is perhaps the most influential of 20th-century writers. From a middle-class Jewish family from Bohemia, he spent most of his life in Prague. He studied law and then obtained an executive position in the workmen's compensation division of the Austro-Hungarian government. Most of his works were published posthumously. His major novels include Der Prozess (1925, tr. The Trial, 1937, 1998), Das Schloss (1926, tr. The Castle, 1930, 1998), and Amerika (1927, tr. 1938), the latter the first novel he wrote (1913) and the last to be published. In prose that is remarkable for its clarity and precision, Kafka presents a world that is at once real and dreamlike and in which individuals burdened with guilt, isolation, and anxiety make a futile search for personal salvation. Important stories appearing during his lifetime were "Das Urteil" (1913, tr. "The Judgement," 1945), Die Verwandlung (1915, tr. The Metamorphosis, 1937), "Ein Landarzt" (1919, tr. "A Country Doctor," 1945), In der Strafkolonie (1920, tr. In the Penal Colony, 1941), and "Ein Hungerkünstler" (1922, tr. "A Hunger Artist," 1938).

See his diaries, ed. by M. Brod (tr. 1948–49); his letters to Felice Bauer, ed. by E. Heller and J. Born (tr. 1973); biographies by M. Brod (1937, new ed. 1995), R. Hayman (1981, repr. 2001), E. Pawel (1984), N. Murray (2004), R. Stach (2 vol., 2002–8, tr. 2005–13), and S. Friedländer (2013); biography of his youthful years by E. Kendall (2013); studies by W. H. Sokel (1966), E. Heller (1974), S. Corngold (1988), and M. Anderson (1990).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Franz Kafka: Selected full-text books and articles

Franz Kafka's The Metamorphosis By Harold Bloom Chelsea House, 1988
Librarian's tip: This is a book of literary criticism
Franz Kafka's The Castle By Harold Bloom Chelsea House, 1988
Librarian's tip: This is a book of literary criticism
Kafka's Castle By Ronald Gray Cambridge University Press, 1956
Librarian's tip: This is a book of literary criticism
Literature and Psychoanalysis By Edith Kurzweil; William Phillips Columbia University Press, 1983
Librarian's tip: Part IV "Three Views of Kafka"
Why Karl Calls Himself "Negro": The Representation of Waiting and the Waited-On in Franz Kafka's der Verschollene By William, Jennifer Marston West Virginia University Philological Papers, Vol. 49, Fall 2003
The German Novel: Studies By Roy Pascal Manchester University Press, 1956
Librarian's tip: Chap. VIII "Franz Kafka, 1883-1924: The Problem of Interpretation"
Changing Minds, Saving Lives: Franz Kafka as a Key Industrial Reformer By Wasserman, Martin East European Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 4, Winter 2001
Conversations with Kafka: Notes and Reminiscences By Gustav Janouch; Goronwy Rees Frederick A. Praeger, 1953
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
The Labyrinth Within: Franz Kafka and the Predicament of Modern Man By Olsen, Eric The World and I, Vol. 19, No. 6, June 2004
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