Juvenal (Decimus Junius Juvenalis) (jōō´vənəl), fl. 1st to 2d cent. AD, Roman satirical poet. His verse established a model for the satire of indignation, in contrast to the less harsh satire of ridicule of Horace. Little is known about his life except that during much of it he was desperately poor. A tradition tells that as a youth he was banished from court for satirizing an imperial favorite; later his work reveals a deep hatred for the Emperor Domitian. He is known chiefly for his 16 satires, which contain a vivid representation of life in Rome under the empire. They were probably written in the years between AD 100 and AD 128. The biting tone of his diatribes has seldom been equaled. From the stern point of view of the older Roman standards he powerfully denounces the lax and luxurious society, the brutal tyranny, the affectations and immorality of women, and the criminal excesses of Romans as he saw them, especially in his earlier years. The rhetorical form of his verse is finished, exact, and epigrammatic, furnishing many sayings that have become familiar through quotation.

See translations by R. Humphries (1958), G. G. Ramsay (rev ed. 1961), and P. Green (1967, repr. 1974); studies by I. G. Scott (1927), G. Highet (1955, repr. 1961); M. Coffey, Roman Satire (1976, 2d ed. 1989).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Juvenal: Selected full-text books and articles

Satires of Rome: Threatening Poses from Lucilius to Juvenal By Kirk Freudenburg Cambridge University Press, 2001
Wykked Wyves and the Woes of Marriage: Misogamous Literature from Juvenal to Chaucer By Katharina M. Wilson; Elizabeth M. Makowski State University of New York Press, 1990
Lessons from Juvenal By Kimball, Roger New Criterion, Vol. 21, No. 8, April 2003
Writing down Rome: Satire, Comedy, and Other Offences in Latin Poetry By John Henderson Clarendon Press, 1999
Librarian's tip: Chap. 10 "Pump Up the Volume: Juvenal, Satire 1. 1-21"
Collected Papers on Latin Literature By R. G. M. Nisbet; S. J. Harrison Oxford University, 1995
Librarian's tip: Chap. 15 "Notes on the Text and Interpretation of Juvenal"
Critical Essays on Roman Literature: Satire By J. P. Sullivan Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963
Librarian's tip: "Is Juvenal a Classic? An Introductory Essay" begins on p. 93
Bitter Carnival: Ressentiment and the Abject Hero By Michael André Bernstein Princeton University Press, 1992
Librarian's tip: Chap. Two "O Totiens Servus: Horace, Juvenal, and the Classical Saturnalia"
Roman Eloquence: Rhetoric in Society and Literature By William J. Dominik Routledge, 1997
Librarian's tip: Chap. 9 "Declamation and Contestation in Satire"
Symbol and Myth in Ancient Poetry By Herbert Musurillo Fordham University Press, 1961
Librarian's tip: Chap. X "Juvenal: The Critic with a Smirk"
Dryden and the Traces of Classical Rome By Paul H. Hammond Oxford University Press, 1999
Librarian's tip: "From Juvenal: Living in the Post-Revolutionary World" begins on p. 179
Dryden's Sixth Satire of Juvenal and the Sexual Politics of Monarchy By Caldwell, Tanya Philological Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 1, Winter 1996
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Fifty Key Classical Authors By Alison Sharrock; Rhiannon Ash Routledge, 2002
Librarian's tip: "Juvenal" begins on p. 370
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