Stefan George

Stefan George (shtā´fän gāôrg´ə), 1868–1933, German poet, leader of the revolt against realism in German literature. He was poetically influenced by Greek classical forms, by the Parnassians, and by the French symbolists. Intellectually he was a disciple of Nietzsche. His lyrics, intended for an intellectual aristocracy, were esoteric and remote, but their fine classicism, their melodious words, and the austerity of George's pure art made him a major poet. His representative verse includes Algabal (1892), Das Jahr der Seele [the soul's year] (1897), Der siebente Ring [the seventh ring] (1907), Der Stern des Bundes [the star of the covenant] (1914), and Das neue Reich [the new kingdom] (1928). George was antagonistic to humanism, to democracy, and to progress. He influenced younger poets through his verse and through Blätter für die Kunst (founded 1892), the literary organ of his circle. George made gifted translations of the works of many poets, including Dante. In contemporary life George looked toward the rise of a "superman" who would unify state and culture. Realizing the divergence between his aesthetic ideal and its brutalized reality, he left Germany after the Nazis came to power. Nevertheless the Nazis adopted him as national poet after his death.

See studies by G. R. Urban (1962), U. K. Goldsmith (1970), and M. M. and E. A. Metzger (1972).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2018, The Columbia University Press.

Stefan George: Selected full-text books and articles

German Poetry: A Critical Anthology By Robert M. Browning Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1962
PRIMARY SOURCE
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
European Poetry in Scotland: An Anthology of Translations By Duncan Glen; Peter France Edinburgh University Press, 1989
PRIMARY SOURCE
A primary source is a work that is being studied, or that provides first-hand or direct evidence on a topic. Common types of primary sources include works of literature, historical documents, original philosophical writings, and religious texts.
Stefan George By E. K. Bennett Yale University Press, 1954
The Book as Artefact, Text and Border By Anne Mette Hansen; Roger Lüdeke; Wolfgang Streit; Cristina Urchueguía; Peter Shillingsburg Rodopi, 2005
The Poet of the Reich By Simon, John New Criterion, Vol. 22, No. 2, October 2003
Of Circles and Riddles: Stefan George and the "Language Crisis" around 1900 By Strathausen, Carsten German Quarterly, October 1, 2003
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Encyclopedia of Literary Modernism By Paul Poplawski Greenwood Press, 2003
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