Chamber Music

chamber music, ensemble music for small groups of instruments, with only one player to each part. Its essence is individual treatment of parts and the exclusion of virtuosic elements. Originally played by amateurs in courts and aristocratic circles, it began to be performed by professionals only in the 19th cent. with the rise of the concert hall. In the broadest sense it existed as early as the Middle Ages. The ricercare and the concerted canzone of the 16th cent. are properly chamber music, although unlike later forms they were not for specific instruments but were usually performed by voices and whatever instruments were at hand. During the baroque period the chief type was the trio sonata. About 1750 the string quartet with its related types—trio, quintet, sextet, septet, and octet—arose. As developed by Haydn and Mozart the quartet became the principal chamber-music form. It was used by Beethoven and Schubert, whose quartets are the last of the classical period, and by the chief composers of the romantic period—Mendelssohn, Schumann, Brahms, Dvořák, Franck, d'Indy, and Reger. In the early 20th cent. the coloristic possibilities of the quartet were exploited by Debussy and Ravel. More recently the different forms of chamber music have been used extensively for experiments in atonality, percussive rhythms, and serial techniques by such composers as Schoenberg, Bartók, Webern, Berg, Stravinsky, Sessions, and Piston.

See D. F. Tovey, Essays in Musical Analysis: Chamber Music (1944, repr. 1989); W. W. Cobbett, ed., Cyclopedic Survey of Chamber Music (3 vol., 2d ed. 1963, repr. 1987); H. E. Ulrich, Chamber Music (2d ed. 1966); M. Berger, Guide to Chamber Music (1985); J. M. Keller, Chamber Music: A Listener's Guide (2010).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Chamber Music: Selected full-text books and articles

Chamber Music: The Growth & Practice of an Intimate Art
Homer Ulrich.
Columbia University Press, 1948
Essays in Musical Analysis: Chamber Music
Donald Francis Tovey.
Oxford University Press, 1944
From Song to Symphony: A Manual of Music Appreciation
Daniel Gregory Mason.
Oliver Ditson Company, 1924
Librarian’s tip: Chap. VI, Chamber Music
Appraisals of Original Wind Music: A Survey and Guide
David Lindsey Clark.
Greenwood Press, 1999
Bartok's Chamber Music
János Kárpáti.
Pendragon Press, 1994
The Chamber Music of Brahms
Daniel Gregory Mason.
The Macmillan Company, 1933
The Chamber Music of Johannes Brahms
Henry S. Drinker Jr.
Elkan-Vogel, 1932
Russian Symphony: Thoughts about Tchaikovsky
Dmitri Shostakovich.
Philosophical Library, 1947
The Main Stream of Music and Other Essays
Donald Francis Tovey.
Oxford University Press, 1949
Twentieth-Century Chamber Music
James McCalla.
Routledge, 2003
Nineteenth-Century Chamber Music
Stephen E. Hefling.
Routledge, 2003
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