Rap Music

rap music or hip-hop, genre originating in the mid-1970s among black and Hispanic performers in New York City, at first associated with an athletic style of dancing, known as breakdancing. The word rap, derived from a 1960s slang word for conversation, generally consists of chanted, often improvised, street poetry accompanied by a montage of well-known recordings, usually disco or funk. Detractors have criticized most rap music as a boastful promotion of violence and misogyny; others have admired it as an inventive manipulation of cultural idioms and credit many rappers with an acute social and political awareness. Early rap groups included Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaataa, and the Beastie Boys. Rap has influenced many forms of popular culture, particularly film, and has been increasingly incorporated into pop music. Some influential rap performers include Public Enemy, NWA, Run-DMC, Missy "Misdemeanor" Elliot, and Queen Latifah.

See M. Costello and D. F. Wallace, Signifying Rappers (1990); G. Nelson, Hip Hop America (1998).

The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright© 2014, The Columbia University Press.

Rap Music: Selected full-text books and articles

Groove Music: The Art and Culture of the Hip-Hop DJ
Mark Katz.
Oxford University Press, 2012
Nuthin' but a "G" Thang: The Culture and Commerce of Gangsta Rap
Eithne Quinn.
Columbia University Press, 2005
Hip Hop and Philosophy: Rhyme 2 Reason
Derrick Darby; Tommie Shelby.
Open Court, 2005
Chicano Rap: Gender and Violence in the Postindustrial Barrio
Pancho McFarland.
University of Texas Press, 2008
Brothers Gonna Work It Out: Sexual Politics in the Golden Age of Rap Nationalism
Charise L. Cheney.
New York University Press, 2005
Controversial Rap Themes, Gender Portrayals and Skin Tone Distortion: A Content Analysis of Rap Music Videos
Conrad, Kate; Dixon, Travis; Zhang, Yuanyuan.
Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Vol. 53, No. 1, March 2009
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Do Males and Females Report Similar Constructs of Rap Music? A Cross-Gender Validity Study of the Rap Music Attitude and Perception Scale
Tyson, Edgar H.; McLaughlin, Alicia.
Gender & Behaviour, Vol. 10, No. 2, December 2012
"The South Got Something to Say": Atlanta's Dirty South and the Southernization of Hip-Hop America
Grem, Darren E.
Southern Cultures, Vol. 12, No. 4, Winter 2006
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Beyond Keeping It Real: OutKast, the Funk Connection, and Afrofuturism
Rambsy, Howard.
American Studies, Vol. 52, No. 4, January 1, 2013
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The Roots of Rap Music and Hip Hop Culture: One Perspective
Bynoe, Yvonne.
National Urban League. The State of Black America, January 1, 2001
Oppositional Consciousness within an Oppositional Realm: The Case of Feminism and Womanism in Rap and Hip Hop, 1976-2004
Phillips, Layli; Reddick-Morgan, Kerri; Stephens, Dionne Patricia.
The Journal of African American History, Vol. 90, No. 3, Summer 2005
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Eminem's Lyrical Personae: The Everyman, the Needy Man, the Hegemon
Hickey-Moody, Anna.
Culture, Society and Masculinities, Vol. 1, No. 2, Fall 2009
PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
Underground Codes: Race, Crime, and Related Fires
Katheryn Russell-Brown.
New York University Press, 2004
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 3 "Gangsta Rap and Crime: Any Relationship?"
Race Music: Black Cultures from Bebop to Hip-Hop
Guthrie P. Ramsey Jr.
University of California Press, 2003
Talkin That Talk: Language, Culture, and Education in African America
Geneva Smitherman.
Routledge, 2000
Librarian’s tip: Chap. 15 "The Chain Remain the Same: Communicative Practices in the Hip Hop Nation"
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