Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) is a quarterly professional journal published and owned by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance (AAHPERD). Its editorial headquarters is in Reston, Va. This journal has been published since 1930. Offering the latest research in the art and science of human movement studies, RQES features articles and research notes encompassing such topic areas as biomechanics, epidemiology, motor behavior, measurement and evaluation, physiology, pedagogy, psychology and history/philosophy/sociocultural foundations. This journal is a go-to source for researchers and university students preparing for careers in exercise and sport science. Its region is the U.S. The journal publishes over 50 papers per year in four issues (March, June, September and December), an annual index (in the December issue) and an annual supplement, containing approximately 250 abstracts of presentations from the Research Consortium Conference of the AAHPERD National Convention and Exposition. In March 2005, RQES featured an article titled "Listening to the Voices: The Experiences of African American Female Student Athletes." Using data collected at a large Midwestern University, the study looked at the sport participation patterns of 12 African American female collegiate student athletes. In December 2006, RQES researched active and passive commuting to school to assess the effects walking farther to school had on primary school age kids. In June 2009, the journal included an article that explored whether adults involved in resistance training programs experienced and perceived changes in physical self-worth. Linda Topper is the Managing Editor and Publisher and Mark G. Fischman is Editor-in-Chief.

Articles from Vol. 72, No. 1, March

A–I I–TT–W
A 90-S Bicycle Ergometer Test of Anaerobic Endurance in Competitive Swimmers
Tim Henrich and Bill Carleton, University of the Incarnate Word, and Robert Pankey, Texas A & M University--Corpus Christi Bowers and Fox described training category two, as maximal exercise lasting 30-90s and prescribed training for this period...
A Case Study of Developmental Dyspraxia in Improving Perceptual Motor Performance and Handwriting through an Exercise Intervention
Yuhua Li, Shawn P Whitman, Amy Friedman, and Tammy Krugger; University of Memphis Dyspraxia has been defined as motor difficulties caused by perceptual problems, especially visual-motor and kinesthetic-motor difficulties. It is an immaturity of...
A Classroom-Based Smoking Prevention Intervention Targeting Ninth Graders
Timothy J. Bungum, Northern Arizona University, Miguel A. Perez, California State university-Fresno, and Sander Martin, University of North Texas The health behaviors, and smoking behaviors in particular, are a concern for public health officials,...
A Closer Look at the Social Loafing Phenomenon: Investigating the Individual Effort of Females as Members of Gender-Specific Groups
Susan Hart and Kenneth D. Harrell, New Mexico State University Sport Psychology literature concerning team dynamics is replete with examples suggesting that individuals exert less 100% effort when acting as members of a group. This decrease in effort,...
A Comparison of Visual Body Fat Estimates with Skinfold Caliper and Hydrostatic Weight Body Fat Estimates
Jamey R. Plunk, Stephen F. Austin State University In recent years, Americans have acquired a fascination with determinations of body fat percentages. As a result, many "new and improved" body fat measurement instruments have been developed. Although...
A Comparison of Web-Based Course Instruction and Traditional Teaching in Motor Behavior
Noreen L. Goggin, University of North Texas The use of web-based course instruction (WBI) as a teaching "tool" in kinesiology has generated a great deal of controversy in the past few years. Although, numerous advantages and disadvantages of WBI...
A Content Analysis of Films: Images of Physical Education
Charles A. Duncan, University of Louisiana--Lafayette, Joe Nolan, Southwest Oklahoma State University, and Ralph Wood, Southeastern Louisiana University Teachers have often been portrayed in movies, with both positive and negative images. Researchers...
A Cross-National Comparison of Newspaper Photographic Coverage of Female and Male Athletes Competing in the Centennial Olympic Games
John Vincent, University of Alabama, and Charles H. Imwold, The Florida State University The purpose of this study was to compare the photographic coverage of female and male athletes in selected "serious" and "popular" newspapers from three countries...
A Factor Analysis of the Construct of the Barrier Instrument
Richard Doyle, Weimo Zhu, and Bradley Hedrick, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign The modified 47-item instrument was mailed to a sample of alumni with disabilities (N = 1,176) from a major Midwestern university. A total of 411 surveys were...
A Field Test of the Situational Leadership II Model in Two Highly Successful Sport Programs
Robert Case and David Branch, Old Dominion University Recent trends in sport leadership research have focused on examining selected situational variables that may relate to leadership effectiveness. Blanchard's (1985) Situational Leadership II Theory...
Age and Gender Differences in Lower Extremity Control Descending Stairs
Timothy S. Hilliard, Andrew M Weiner, Jennifer L. Cann, and Vincent P Simmarano, Northeastern University Researchers have identified many possible causes of increased falls in the elderly. Declining strength, increased postural sway, visual deficits...
American Cancer Society National School Health Coordinator Leadership Institute: Review and Results of the Pilot Study
Larry K. Olsen, Towson University, Gary English, Ithaca College, Steve Dorman, Texas A&M University, Dale W. Evans, California State University--Long Beach, Tammy C. James, West Chester University; Bruce M. Ragon, University of North Carolina--Wilmington,...
A Multidimensional and Hierarchical Model of Service Quality in the Participant Sport Industry
Yong Jae Ko, University of Texas, and Donna L. Pastore, The Ohio State University In the current literature of sport management and marketing, there is a gap among scholars in conceptualizing service quality. To gain a better understanding of the...
Anaerobic Capacity and Swimming Performances Following Recovery from Excessive Training
Tim Henrich, University of the Incarnate Word, Robert Pankey, Texas A & M University--Corpus Christi, and Bill Carleton, University of the Incarnate Word Competitive swimmers in elite training programs are challenged with high training volumes...
Analysis of High School Physical Education Accountability Systems and the Relationship of Assessment as an Accountability System
Alisa R. James, University of Massachusetts The purposes of the study were to (a) identify particular features of accountability systems and (b) examine teachers' and students' perceptions of relationships between assessment and accountability systems....
Analysis of Psychosocial Differences of Male Childhood Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse
Len Buchta, The Pennsylvania State University, and Larry K. Olsen, Towson University Introduction: One of the least understood and studied areas of childhood sexual abuse is the long-term effects such abuse has on males. Of particular interest is...
An Analysis of Taiwanese Female Senior High School Students' Attitudes toward Physical Education
Tracy L. Pellett, Minnesota State University--Mankato, Wei-Kuo Dai, Henderson State University, Li Yin Ko, Kaoshiung Gang-Shan Junior High School, Di-Shan Chen, Taipei Shin-Zhuang Junior High School, and Heidi A. Henschel-Pellett, Minnesota State University--Mankato...
An Examination of the Determinants of Sport Commitment in College Athletes
Anthony J. Amorose, Illinois Stale University Understanding why athletes are motivated to participate in sport is an important goal for researchers and practitioners alike. While various theoretical frameworks have been proposed, a number of scholars...
An Inquiry about the Value Orientations of Physical Education Preservice Teachers and Faculty
Kevin G. Patton, University of Massachusetts-Amherst Understanding how preservice teachers acquire the values and beliefs that influence their decisions and selection of physical education curricula is important in the development of effective teacher...
An Investigation of Commitment among Underserved Youth Participants in an Extended Day Physical Activity Program
Tammy A. Schilling, University of Memphis With increasing violence among youth in school settings, the importance of promoting and maintaining youth involvement in positive extracurricular activities has been recognized. The primary purpose of this...
An Investigation of the Relation of Coaching Roles to Satisfaction in Women's Collegiate Softball Teams
Jay T Lee, Lamar University, and Dale G. Pease and Jennifer Hightower, University of Houston While reversal theory (RT) has typically been viewed as an activation theory, Apter (1997) suggested that RT could be used to study situational group dynamics...
A Review of Immunity Provisions in State Legislation regarding the Use of Automated External Defibrillators: Implications for Sport and Recreation Managers and Practitioners
Daniel P. Connaughton and John O. Spengler, University of Florida It is estimated that one-fourth of all Americans have some form of coronary artery disease, the nation's deadliest disease that causes more than 480,000 fatal heart attacks per year....
Association of Exercise Identity with Three Measures of Exercise Commitment among White Collar Employees in a Spice Production Facility
Dean F. Anderson, Charles M. Cychosz, Warren D. Franke, and Kara J. Bahr, Iowa State University Role identities are well established theoretical constructs known to give meaning and importance to past behavior as well as providing direction for...
Association of Tobacco Use with Acculturative Status, Knowledge, and Attitudes among Early Adolescent Mexican Americans
Bobby Guinn, Tom Semper, Vern Vincent, and Layne Jorgensen, University of Texas-Pan American. Considerable evidence suggests adolescence is the critical life stage for tobacco use prevention as this is when initiation, regular use, and dependence...
Association of Wellness Rejection Identity with Measures of Exercise and Nutrition Behaviors in a Community Sample
Charles M. Cychosz, Dean F. Anderson, and Warren D. Franke, Iowa State University Role-identities have recently received renewed attention as important, measurable sociopsychological mediators of participation in health-related activities. The Wellness...
Associations between Lifetime Sexual Partners and Health Risk Behaviors in a Representative Sample of United States College Students
Roberta J. Ogletree, Southern Illinois University--Carbondale, and Mary K. Dinger and Sara K. Vesely, University of Oklahoma The purpose of the study was to examine associations between lifetime sexual partners and other health risk behaviors in...
A Survey of Barriers Confronting Females as Intercollegiate Athletics Directors of NCAA Member Institutions
Aimee Dupree, Mid-American Conference, Columbus, Ohio, and Jerome Quarterman, Bowling Green State University The primary purpose of this investigation was to identify major barriers confronting female intercollegiate athletics directors and directors...
A Survey of Elementary Education Student Teachers: What Do They Teach in Health Education?
Candice E. Zientek, Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania Elementary education majors (n = 68) at an Eastern state university completed a questionnaire following their student teaching experiences. Each student teacher had two, eight-post placements....
A Teacher's Voice III: Looking at Obstacles to Changes in Teaching
Pat Koren, Black Middle School, and Robyn Lock, San Francisco State University As in other types of research projects, many different kinds of obstacles are encountered during implementation. Since action research occurs in a real setting and is...
A Teacher's Voice II: The Use of Fitness Logs on Students' Healthy Lifestyle Choices
Anton McGready, Prospect Sierra Middle School, and Susan Wilkinson, San Jose State University The 1996 Surgeon General's report emphasized that inactivity among youth is causing alarming increases in obesity, cholesterol, and risk of diabetes. Nearly...
A Teacher's Voice I: The Effects of Replacing Negative Self-Talk with Positive Self-Dialogue on Fifth Graders' Self-Esteem
Deborah Craig, Hillsborough Elementary School The California Physical Education Framework addresses self-image and personal development. Media coverage indicates that contemporary youth are acting out scenarios including violent crimes that seem...
Athletes' Perceptions of Coaching Performance among NCAA Division III and NAIA Head Football Coaches in the State of Mississippi
Colby B. Jubenville, Eastern Kentucky University The role of the college coach has reached a high level of prominence and influence. As sports have evolved, so have the roles of the coaches. The concept of the ideal coach continues to be debated...
Attitudes and Behaviors toward Weight, Body Shape, and Eating in Male and Female College Students
Stacy Lofton, University of North Texas, and Tim Bungum, Northern Arizona University Eating disorders are a widespread problem on college campuses. Despite health educators stressing the importance of developing programs to reduce risk factors,...
Attitudes toward Role Modeling Physical Activity and Fitness Promoting Behaviors in HPERD
Bradley J. Cardinal, Oregon State University, and Marita K. Cardinal, Western Oregon University For decades, a "do as I say, not as I do" physical activity paradox has been discussed within health, physical education, recreation, and dance (HPERD)....
Attractors, Facilitators, and Subjective Warrants in the Socialization of Women Sport Pedagogy Professors
Patt Dodds, University of Massachusetts This paper describes attractors, facilitators, and personal, situational, and societal factors (Dewar, 1983) through which participants became college and university sport pedagogists. Socialization research...
Barrier Perception and Physical Activity Participation
Richard Washburn and Weimo Zhu, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Low levels of perceived barriers should be associated with higher levels of leisure time physical activity (PA). Therefore, to evaluate construct validity we assessed the...
Baseline Neuropsychological Human Performance Assessment of Male and Female College Basketball Players
Pamela J. Hoyes Beehler, Wichita State University, and George V. Kondraske, University of Texas-Arlington Baseline neuropsychological human performance assessment measures an athlete's neuromotor status before the season/injury to determine what...
Behavior Management Intervention Increases Physical Activity (PA) and Improves Psychological Factors in Previously Sedentary Adults
J. L. White, L. Ransdell, J. Shaw, and P. Eisenmann, University of Utah (jenniferlynnewhite@yahoo.com) The purpose of this study was to describe the effectiveness of a worksite PA intervention that combined behavior management skills with physical...
Bilateral Symmetry in Coincident Timing
Cheryl A. Coker, New Mexico State University The purpose of this study was two-fold: to investigate the degree of bilateral symmetry for a coincident timing task and to examine participants' perception of their performance with each limb. Thirty...
Block Scheduling: A Catalyst for Change in Middle and High School Physical Education
Joanne Margaret Hynes-Dusel, Towson University Research on the effects of block scheduling on physical education has by and large been neglected. In one of the few articles which consider the implications for block scheduling in physical education,...
Body Composition Changes after 14 Weeks of Concurrent Training in Women
Donna J. Terbizan and Christian Albano, North Dakota State University One of the main reasons cited for doing physical activity is to lose body weight. Concurrent endurance and resistance programs have been shown to help individuals lose body fat...
Body Dimensions and Overweight Problems of Children of Hawaiian Ancestry
Kwok Ho, Dennis Chai, James Little, Ronald Hetzler, and Shuqiang Zhang, University of Hawaii, and Norman Kaluhiokalani, Brigham Young University-Hawaii The purpose of this study was to determine growth and development profiles of children of Hawaiian...
Body Image and Physical Fitness as a Function of Locus of Control and Gender in College Women and Men
Daniel D. Adame and Thomas C. Johnson, Emory University, and Steven P. Cole, Research Design Associates The purpose of this study was to explore whether the relations of body image and physical fitness differed by gender and locus of control. Two-hundred...
Calibrating Portfolios to Make the Scores Meaningful
Weimo Zhu, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Since scoring rubrics in portfolios are often set on an ordinal scale, total scores generated from the scale may be misleading. Fortunately, ordinal scores can be transformed onto an interval...
Calibration of the Barrier Instrument Using the Rasch Rating Scaling Model
Weimo Zhu, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Most of existing exercise barrier scales are constructed by measurement models based on classical testing theory (CTT), which suffers from several psychometric disadvantages. For example, the...
Changes in Children's Knowledge of Cutting, Passing, and Tactics in Invasion Games after a Unit of Instruction
Michael Nevett, Inez Rovegno, and Matt Babiarz, University of Alabama The purposes of this study were to describe the changes in fourth grade children's knowledge of passing and cutting to receive a pass in a three versus three basketball-type keep-away...
Children's Definitions of Physical Fitness
Joan B. Landry, Melinda A. Solmon, Helene Afeman, Paul Rukavina, Kathy Hill, and Louis Harrison, Jr., Louisiana State University The Surgeon General's Report (USDHHS, 1996) identified physical inactivity as a major health risk factor in our society....
Children's Insights into the Rules and Protocols Used in Elementary Physical Education
Steve Sanders, University of Memphis The purpose of this study was to examine the insights of kindergarten and second grade children concerning their perceptions and insights on the rules, routines, and teacher expectations associated with physical...
Children's Motivation in Elementary Physical Education: An Expectancy-Value Theory Approach
Ping Xiang, Ron McBride, and Jianmin Guan, Texas A&M University Motivating students to participate in physical activity regularly and encouraging them to develop lifetime activity habits have become important concerns for both researchers and...
Children's Perceived Competence and Participation in Recess Activities
A. Brian Nielsen, Sarah E. Hilton, Janice Causgrove-Dunn, and E. Jane Watkinson, University of Alberta Several theoretical models identify perceived competence as a mediator of future choice of participation and persistence in activity (Eccles et...
Children's Self-Efficacy, Motivational Intentions, and Attributions in Physical Education and Sport
The purpose of this study was to examine how differences in children's self-efficacy, age, and gender impact motivational intentions, future self-efficacy, and attributions following perceptions of failure. Children, ages 8-14 years (N = 289), were...
Chinese Teachers' Attitudes toward Teaching Physical Activity and Fitness as Compared to USA Teachers
Jiantnin Guan, Ron McBride, and Ping Xiang, Texas A&M University Physical educators' attitude is an important factor affecting the implementation of a curriculum and student learning. Ennis (1996), for example, noted that teacher's attitudes...
College Students' Perceptions of Substance Use and Sexual Behaviors
Raffy R. Luquis, the Pennsylvania State University--Harrisburg, and Erica Garcia, and Darlene Ashford, Southern Connecticut State University The present study was conducted as part of an on-going investigation on health risk behaviors among students...
Coming to Care: A Transformation
Lynn M. Owens, Western Maryland College, and Catherine D. Ennis, University of Maryland An emerging body of knowledge about the ethic of care, relational knowing, and teacher development suggests that a motivational shift is imperative in establishing...
Comparison of Anaerobic Thresholds of Trained Aerobic and Anaerobic Athletes and Untrained Subjects
Thad R. Crews, James M. Green, Will Peveler, and Andy M. Bosak, Western Kentucky University The anaerobic threshold in conjunction with maximal oxygen consumption ([VO.sub.2]max) has been implicated as a predictor of success in endurance type events....
Comparison of Females In-Line Skating and Walking with Added Weight
Dale DeVoe, Colorado State University, and Victoria Sedlacek, Fairfax County Park Authority The use of in-line skates for recreation and commuting by college students has increased in popularity over recent years. This investigation evaluated the...
Comparison of Material Fatigue Effects for Athletic Tape Brands and Athletic Braces on Ankle Range of Motion
Paul E. Colosky, Jr., Jason Greenfield, Guy Ristoff, and M. L. Johnson, Colorado State University The purpose of this study was to determine the duration of range of motion restriction by athletic tape brands and athletic braces, when subjected...
Comparison of Patterns of Alcohol Use between High School and College Athletes and Nonathletes
Kathryn M. Hildebrand, Northern Arizona University, and Kimberly L. Bogle and Dewaynef J.Johnson, Florida State University Alcohol abuse on college and university campuses is recognized nationally as a serious problem. Few studies have investigated...
Comparison of Patterns of Tobacco Use between High School and College Athletes and Nonathletes
Kimberly L. Bogle, Florida State University, Kathtyn M. Hildebrand, Northern Arizona University, and Dewayne J. Johnson, Florida State University The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has recognized the use of tobacco products as a national...
Comparison of Taiwanese and American Physical Education Majors' Stereotyping of Physical Activities
Tracy L. Pellett, Minnesota State University, Mankato, Kuo-Chuan Tsai, Yuan-Peir College, Pao- Ling Chu, Hae-Ching Vocational School, Hsiao-Chuan Lei, Pa-Li Junior High School, and Tyler Travis and Chrissy DiMarzo, The Pennsylvania State University-...
Comparison of the Multiactivity Model and Sport Education Model in Determining Fitness of Eighth Grade Students
Deborah J. Rhea, Texas Christian University A major concern for Americans approaching the 21st century is the number of children who are unfit and physically inactive. By regularly engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during...
Concurrent Validity of Variations of the Flexed Arm Hang Strength Test
Charles A. Duncan, University of Louisiana--Lafayette, Daniel Hollander, Southeastern Louisiana University, and James M. Clemons, University of Louisiana--Lafayette The flexed arm hang (FAH) is a commonly used test to measure shoulder girdle strength...
Correlation between State Anxiety and Locus of Control
Dustin Fink, M. L. Johnson, Catherine Kennedy, and Charles Porter, Colorado State University Considerable empirical evidence links locus of control (LOC) and state anxiety (S-A); with external LOC being associated with high performance anxiety....
Creating Developmentally Appropriate Self-Report Instruments for Children: An Illustrative Example
James L. Mandigo, Brock University, and Linda P. Thompson, University of Alberta Creating developmentally appropriate items is critical when conducting self-report research with children. The common practice of taking adult questionnaires and simply...
Determining Concurrent Validity of SOFIT for Measuring Physical Activity of Children with Mental Retardation
Jennifer Faison-Hodge, Capital University, and David L. Porretta, The Ohio State University Methods of effectively measuring physical activity for children and youth have been receiving national attention (USDHHS, 1996). While a number of observational...
Developing Portfolio Assessment Systems
Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Wayne State University One way to construct a portfolio is to develop and calibrate a number of portfolio tasks that are later compiled to create a portfolio. Portfolios are commonly assessed by assigning a number (or rating)...
Development and Validation of a Racquetball Skill Test Battery for Young Adult Beginners
Eddie T. C. Lam, Cleveland State University, and James J. Zhang, University of Houston Racquetball has been one of the fastest growing lifetime sports among young adults or older adults who began to play at a young age. In spite of its popularity,...
Development of a Squash Proficiency Test Battery for Male Players
Chan Wan-Ka and Youlian Hong, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Robert Carroll, The University of Manchester, and Tony Choi, Hong Kong Squash There are few test batteries for the sport of squash. The purpose of this study was to develop a test...
Development of Instruments to Assess Physical Education Conceptual Knowledge
Suzan F Ayers, University of South Carolina This poster will present the development of a national-level test designed to assess the subdisciplinary areas identified as critical knowledge in physical education. This type of assessment measure does...
Dimensions of Spectator Identification Associated with Women's Professional Basketball Game Attendance
Debra P. Williamson, James J. Zhang, Dale G. Pease, John P Gaa, and Andrew S. Jackson, University of Houston, and Eddie T. C. Lam, Cleveland State University Despite the growth in popularity and attendance at professional women's basketball games,...
Divided Attention Costs for Speeded and Nonspeeded Secondary Tasks
Lanie A. Dornier and T. Gilmour Reeve, Texas Tech University Recently, Fischman, Kinley, and Lane (1999) examined divided attention costs from a nonspeeded secondary task. They found that reaction time (RT) on a primary task slowed when paired with...
Effect of Team Size in Soccer on Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity
Mark G. Arnett, University of Arizona There is concern that game-based physical education curricula are not meeting public health needs (Sallis & McKenzie, 1991). Game playing has been associated with waiting, a lack of involvement and, therefore,...
Effects of Aging, Grip Span, and Grip Style on Hand Strength
Key words: force, pinching, object size, seniors Arm and hand movements such as reaching, grasping, transporting, and manipulating objects are essential to everyday life. Consistent and efficient hand strength contributes to quality of life in general...
Effects of a Tailored Exercise Program for Larger Women on Self-Perceptions and Affect
Susan S. Levy, Vicki Ebbeck, and Patti L. Watkins, Oregon State University The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 3-month structured exercise program designed specifically for larger women on self-perceptions, positive and negative...
Effects of Inservice Training on the Technology Practices and Attitudes of Physical Education Teachers
Rebecca J. Berkowitz, Blendon Middle School, and Deborah L. Tannehill, Pacific Lutheran University Technology has become an essential tool for acquiring information and completing daily tasks in business and education. In education teachers are...
Effects of Lifestyle Factors on Bone Mineral Density among College-Aged Women
Lori W. Turner, M. Allison Ford, G. L. Hoyt, and Sharon Hunt, University of Arkansas-Fayetteville Osteoporosis is a serious health problem and crippling condition that often results in premature mortality and significant morbidity that may be manifested...
Effects of Two Cooperative Learning Strategies on Academic Learning Time, Student Performance, and Social Behavior of Sixth-Grade Physical Education Students
Tim Barrett, California State University-Hayward The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of two cooperative learning strategies in physical education on academic learning time in physical education (ALT-PE), the percentage of...
Effects of Varying Levels of Physical Activity on [VO.Sub.2]max and Psychomotor Function of Older Men
Carol L. Christensen, Greg Payne, and Emily H. Wughalter, San Jose State University, Jin H. Yan, University of Houston, and Michael Henehan, Family Practice Medical Associates Researchers have sought to better understand the relationship between...
Effects of Vertical Water Exercise on Selected Muscle Strength Measures among Women Ages 24-55 Years
Diane J. Marra, Northwest Vista college, Wanda Boda, James B. Gale, Elaine McHugh, Sonoma State University, and Donna Burch, Santa Rosa Junior College Although researchers have thoroughly documented the physiological declines of inactive lifestyles...
Effects of Weight Training on Body Satisfaction among Body Image Disturbed College Women
Lavon Williams, Purdue University, and Erica Depcik, Northern Illinois University Body image distortions, misperceptions of one's appearance, among women are typically manifested in the overestimation of body size (Rodin, 1992). Seventy-five percent...
Elementary School Physical Education: Overcrowded Classes and Too Few Facilities!
Bruce Thomas and Yvette Bolen, Athens State University Previous studies were conducted in which pupil-teacher ratios, number of indoor teaching stations, and number of homeroom sections reporting to physical education in Alabama's public schools...
Evaluating School District Physical Education for Children with Special Needs
C. Sue Combs and Lisa M. Griffin, University of North Carolina-Wilmington The purpose of this study was to identify to what extent the state requirements (North Carolina Standard Course of Study) for physical education were being followed for students...
Evaluation of an Abstinence Program by Teachers, Counselors, Administrators, and Youth Leaders
Pamela Hoalt and Kenneth Hoalt, Malone College Many issues are raised when incorporating sex education in public classrooms. One such issue is whether or not to teach sex education from a comprehensive or from an abstinence-only approach. In light...
Evaluation of Body Composition Measurement in Chinese Children
Sai-Chuen Hui, Stephen Heung Sang Wong, Gary Wing Kin Wong, and Patrick Wing Chung Lau, The Chinese University of Hong Kong Body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), skinfolds measurement (SKF), and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) are widely...
Examining Gender Differences in the Internet Coverage of Intercollegiate Athletics
George B. Cunningham, The Ohio State University, and Michael Sagas, Texas A&M University Since the advent of Title IX, opportunities for women in sport have increased dramatically. Despite the advances, there has been little to no improvement...
Examining the Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Scores among Children Using a Multivariate Model
J. P. Barfield, Huntingdon College, Timothy Michael, Western Michigan University, David Rowe, East Garolina University, and Kent Wagoner, Middle Tennessee State University The FITNESSGRAM health-related physical fitness test battery is the latest...
Examining the Structure of Physical Self-Description Using an American University Sample
Key words: self-concept, theory, hierarchical model, exercise Researchers have argued for the construction of multidimensional exercise and sport measures that are theoretically based and psychometrically sound (e.g., Gill, Dzewaltowski & Deeter,...
Experienced Elementary Physical Educators' Perceptions and Insights on Professional Development and the Teaching-Learning Process
Ann-Catherine Sullivan, Saginaw Valley State University, and Sandra A. Stroot, The Ohio State University A recent influx of federal, state and local agencies have developed agendas which focus on improving the status of teaching in America's schools....
Faculty Use of Instructional Technology in Park and Recreation: Current and Future Trends
Jennifer Y. Mak, Marshall University (mak@marshall.edu) The use of instructional technology in higher education was expanding rapidly. This was also true for park and recreation higher education. Moreover, numerous leisure educators also foresaw...
Family Physicians' Health Promotion Beliefs and Practices
Jerome E. Kotecki and James F. McKenzie, Ball State University, Stewart Brown, Jeff Bird, Leslie Greenberg, J. Scott Reece, Amy Banter, Catherine Caron, and H. Allen Neal, Ball Memorial Hospital Personal beliefs and practices concerning the validity...
Frequency and Nature of Physical Education Preparation of Elementary Education Majors
Charlotte A. Humphries, University of Southern Mississippi, and Madge Ashy, Southeastern Louisiana University (retired) When physical education is not taught by an elementary specialist, the responsibility falls to the classroom teacher. Little...
From a Social Constructivist Perspective: The Influence of Teacher Education Programs and School Cultures on Student Teachers' Dispositions and Situated Pedagogical Content Knowledge
Weiyun Chen, Temple University Social constructivists assert that knowledge is socially constructed. As preservice teachers learn about teaching, they continuously interact with teacher educators, cooperating teachers, and students in school situations....
Gender and Ethnic Differences among Psychological, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Physical Activity in Adolescents
Charles F. Morgan, San Diego State University, Thomas L. McKenzie and James F Sallis, San Diego State University and University of California-San Diego, and Sheila L. Broyles, Philip R. Nader, and Michelle M. Zive, University of California-San Diego...
Gender Differences in Fifth-Graders' Physical Activity during Physical Education Fitness and Sport Lesson Segments
Philip W. Scruggs, Sandy K. Beveridge, and Doris L. Watson, University of Utah This study investigated gender differences in fifth-graders' moderate to vigorous heart rates (%MVHR) and step intensity (STINT) during physical education fitness (FS)...
Gender Differences in Locomotor and Object Control Skill Performance in Underserved Preschoolers
Jacqueline D. Goodway, N. Heather Savage, and Phillip Ward, The Ohio State University, Mary Rudisill, Auburn University, and Kevin Lorson, The Ohio State Universit The purpose of this investigation was to examine gender differences in the performance...
Gender Differences in the Intent to Leave the Coaching Profession
Michael Sagas and Frank B. Ashley, Texas A&M University The present study aimed to advance the turnover construct of the female deficit model proposed by Hart, Hasbrook, and Mathes (1986) in a sample of collegiate head coaches of women's teams....
Health-Related Physical Fitness in Kindergartners: Relationships between Body Fatness and Performance Tests
Cathy S. McMillan and Loran D. Erdmann, Western Illinois University The purposes of this study were to describe gender-specific health-related physical fitness measurements in kindergartners and determine relationships between body fatness and health-related...
Helping High School Female Athletes Develop Good Sport Conduct: A Workshop Intervention
Jennifer J. Waldron, Lori A. Gano-Overway, T Michelle Magyar, Marta Guivernau, and Martha E. Ewing, Michigan State University Sport is an arena where positive values can be taught to athletes. Yet, it is all too common to observe or read about parents,...
Homework in High School Physical Education: A Case Study
Murray Mitchell, University of South Carolina, and Pat Hewitt, Hartsville High School The instructional hours available in the typical school day are insufficient for teachers and students to meet many of their learning goals. Consequently, homework...
Imagined and Actual Limb Selection: A Test of Preference
Casi Rabb Helbig, Texas Lutheran University, and Carl Gabbard, Texas A&M University Recent studies suggest that imagined and actual movements share common neurocognitive networks (e.g., Decety, 1996) and with manual tasks, such actions are controlled...