Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l'Administration


Vol. 17, No. 1, March

As this editorial is written, we have completed about eight weeks on the job and so have feelings of great anticipation and trepidation! Anticipation because we believe that CJAS plays a vital role in our scholarly community and previous editors-in-chief...
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Determinants of In-Store Information Search Strategies Pertaining to a Christmas Gift Purchase
Abstract This study examines consumers' use of in-store information sources while Christmas shopping. A literature review identifies a number of situational, personal, and demographic variables that may influence search behaviour for a Christmas gift....
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Service Problems and Recovery Strategies: An Experiment
Abstract This experiment examines the effectiveness of recovery strategies after a service failure on customer loyalty and complaint intentions. Respondents encountered different core failures in terms of problem severity (denial or delay) and criticality...
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Vol. 16, No. 4, December

Determinants of the Control of International Advertising by Headquarters of Mulitnational Corporations
Abstract The arguments for and against the standardization of international advertising are numerous and varied. However the organizational and control variables related to international advertising are not well understood. This paper attempts to identify...
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Determinants of Commitment and Opportunism: Integrating and Extending Insights from Transaction Cost Analysis and Relational Exchange Theory
Abstract Effectively governed relationships are characterized by high levels of commitment and low levels of opportunism. In this research, we develop a conceptual model that integrates insights from transaction cost analysis and relational exchange...
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Vol. 16, No. 2, June

Inventory and Analysis of Canadian Research and Scholarship in Exporting and International Marketing
Abstract A comprehensive inventory of Canadian research on exporting and international marketing during 19801995 was developed based on a content analysis of 44 sources and a survey of Canadian academics. The main aim was to assess this literature and...
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Benchmarks of Successful Salesforce Performance
Abstract Activities that enhance salesforce performance are examined. Effective salesforces are more adaptive in selling, handle customer complaints better, and generate higher market shares and profits, especially by selling new products. There are...
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Strategic Bias: The Impact of Cognitive Biases on Strategy
Abstract Retrospective sense-making produces the perception of a world more orderly than it is. Outcomes are recalled as more predicable than they seemed in prospect. This inflated perception of order may bias strategic management towards strategies...
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Earnings Management during Antidumping Investigations: Analysis and Implications
Abstract In Canada, antidumping complaints against foreign competitors must be lodged with the Canadian External Trade Tribunal. The tribunal assesses if foreign competition is harming domestic producers by considering many factors, such as the plaintiff's...
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Vol. 15, No. 4, December

Downsizing and Restructuring in Organizations: Research Findings and Lessons Learned-Introduction
"Newcourt could axe more than 500 jobs" Financial Post, January 13, 1998 "Mergers set blistering pace" The Globe and Mail, December 22, 1997 "Owens Corning to close Quebec insulation plant" Financial Post, January 10, 1998 "CN employees riled by holiday...
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Exploring the Consequences of Workforce Reduction
Abstract Although workforce reduction has remained popular among organizations throughout the 1990s, few largescale studies of the impact of employee cutbacks have been conducted in Canada at the establishment level. About 55% of establishments reported...
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Coping with Downsizing and Job Loss: Lessons from the Shaughnessy Hospital Closure
Abstract A study of the impact of hospital closure on employees is timely in light of reports that health care systems in both Canada and the United States are being examined for major restructuring. The literature on health facility closures to date...
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Caught in the Crossfire: Women and Corporate Restructuring
Abstract Senior women managers who voluntarily left a crown corporation in the midst of corporate restructuring were interviewed to explore the factors leading to their departure. Several themes associated with the restructuring process emerged, some...
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"The Executioners' Song": Listening to Downsizers Reflect on Their Experiences
Abstract Substantial research attention has been directed to the victims and survivors of layoffs; however, the downsizers themselves have escaped similar attention. We conducted in-depth interviews with 10 downsizers to try and understand what effects,...
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Lessons Learned
Abstract Downsizing is common to many organizations and is predicted to continue. A review of the research evidence on downsizing is presented, with an emphasis on four questions: Why do organizations downsize? Does downsizing work? Have organizations...
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Vol. 15, No. 3, September

The Canadian Investment Opportunity Set, 1967-1993
Abstract This paper characterizes the Canadian investment opportcu tihz set (lOS) over the period from 1967 through 1993. The conditional lOS represents the risk and realm choices available to investors based on estimated conditional means and dispersions...
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Quasi-Rational Organizational Responses: Functional and Cognitive Sources of Strategic Simplicity
Abstract This paper examines some sources of strategic simplicity: the tendency of strategies to focus on a few competitive tactics or methods. Simple strategies can be contrasted with those that are comprehensive and multifaceted. An empirical study...
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The Role of the Administrative Sciences Association of Canada in Institutionalizing Management Education in Canada
Abstract The development of management education and research practices in Canadian universities closely followed the evolution of practices in the United States. The national Canadian association of management scholars-the Administrative Sciences Association...
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Emergent Family Patterns and Early Career Outcomes of Male and Female MBA Graduates
Abstract The objective of this study is to track a comparable group of young men and women in early career in order to explore the dynamic nature of emergent family patterns, associated career and personal outcomes, and gender differences in the interplay...
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Vol. 15, No. 2, June

Managing Budget Conflicts: Contribution of Goal Interdependence and Interaction
Abstract Managers are confronted with many conflicts when they use a budget. How they discuss their opposing views may have a substantial impact on whether the conflicts contribute to the budget process productively or destructively. This study used...
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A Multiattribute Optimization Model for Strategic Investment Decisions
Abstract Strategic investment decisions entail intertemporal resource allocation. Given relative resource availability and favourable environmental dynamics, effective strategic investment planning is a major determinant of overall corporate financial...
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The Relationship among Organization Structure, Information Technology and Information Processing in Small Canadian Firms
Abstract This study reports results obtained through a mail survey of 244 small business enterprises based in Quebec. Using results from past research based on informationprocessing and information systems theory, we distinguish between the provision...
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Vol. 14, No. 3, September

Inflation Uncertainty and Optimal Debt Maturity: An Empirical Look at Canadian and U.S Government Bonds
Abstract The article studies the effect of inflation uncertainty on the maturity composition of debt. It is argued that inflation uncertainty steepens the term structure of interest rates and therefore reduces the optimal maturity of debt. The inverse...
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A Comparison of Native Culture, Non-Native Culture and New Management Ideology
Abstract Based on a case study of a Native-operated criminal justice organization, this article uses Hofstede's five dimensions of national cultural differences to examine the connections between cultural values and management practices. It concludes...
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Gender Differences among Managers and Nonmanagers: An Analysis of Assessment Data
Abstract This study examined gender differences among both middle- and lower-level managers, and among nonmanagers, in terms of abilities, social skills, values, needs, managerial aptitude, temperament, personality, and interests. Many significant gender...
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In Search of Meaning: Managing for the Health of Our Organizations, Our Communities, and the Natural World
From a historical perspective, what makes a book like In Search of Meaning possible is the change in the Weltanschauung of the Western world that seems to have taken place over the course of the present century. Accordingly, I propose to inaugurate this...
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Vol. 14, No. 2, June

The Impact of Time Lags in Competitor Response on Competition
Abstract Strategic management theory suggests that when time lags occur between one firm's action and another firm's reaction, the firm initiating a strategic move may gain a significant advantage over its rival. As a result, competitive activity is...
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Canadian Direct Investment in the United States: An Ohio Perspective
Abstract This analysis focuses on the direct investment behaviour of small Canadian manufacturing firms in the heavily industrialized state of Ohio. Hypotheses were developed regarding the push and pull factors in foreign direct investment in Ohio. Two...
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Tax Effects and the Leasing Decisions of Canadian Corporations
Abstract Previous empirical research has failed to detect tax effects in the leasing decisions of U. S. corporations. This paper extends previous theoretical research to analyse the effect of the tax as well as nontax incentives to lease by Canadian...
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Content-Domain Confusion among Researchers, Managers, and Union Members regarding Organizational Citizenship Behaviour
Abstract This study investigated perceptions among different subject matter expert groups (SMEs) about the representation and meaning of organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) scale items relative to items assessing altruism, collectivism, and organizational...
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Measuring Linkage-Advertising Effects on Customer Behaviour and Net Revenue: Using Quasi-Experiments of Advertising Treatments with Novice and Experienced Product-Service Users
Abstract Linkage-advertising is the literature and related materials given to customers who respond to advertisers' offers of these materials. Most print and much broadcast advertising in the United States and Canada includes direct-response linkage-advertising...
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Vol. 14, No. 1, March

Evaluating the Management of Interpersonal Conflict in Organizations: A Factor-Analytic Study of Outcome Criteria
Abstract This study was conducted to identify dimensions of outcome criteria commonly used in the evaluation of managerial intervention in conflicts among subordinates. Undergraduate students in organizational psychology rated the likelihood that each...
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The Benefits of Dynamically Hedging the Toronto 35 Stock Index
Abstract A growing number of studies reveal that the performance of dynamic hedging strategies tends to vary across markets, producing large percentage reductions in variance in some and seemingly small reductions in others, relative to constant hedges....
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A Synthesis of Natural Language, Semantic Networks, and Objects for Business Process Modeling
Abstract Business process modeling is one of the important steps in business process reengineering. An analysis of business processes usually starts with a description of the processes in natural language and ends with diagrams for professional communication...
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Human Resource Management on the Pacific Rim: Institutions, Practices, and Attitudes
Larry F. Moore and P. Devereaux Jennings (Eds.). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1995, 384 pp. One should not judge a book by its cover, or possibly by its title. When I was asked to review this book I initially thought it would be just another edited book...
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Vol. 13, No. 3, September

The Role of Affective States and Locus of Attribution in Evaluations of Service
Abstract The roles of affective states (moods and/or emotions) and their attribution in evaluations of service are examined in an empirical setting involving evaluations of an informational software program. Using Schwarz and Clore s (1983) feelings-as-information...
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The Relationship between the Work Ethic, Job Attitudes, Intentions to Quit, and Turnover for Temporary Service Employees
Abstract We argue that because conventional organizational controls have limited relevance for temporary employees, work ethic values may be a critical predictor of employee perseverance and commitment. A field study was conducted to examine the relationships...
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Market Efficiency in the Valuation of Corporate Control: Evidence from Dual Class Equity
Abstract The existence of two classes of equity differing principally in their voting rights allows tests of hypotheses of corporate governance and security valuation. A legal case involving the voting and non-voting shares of Canadian Tire affected...
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Customer Dissatisfaction: The Relationship between Types of Problems and Customer Response
Abstract For many service firms, successfully managing customer dissatisfaction is crucial to stability and profitable growth. It requires a strategy that identifies the connection between the type of problems and customer dissatisfaction responses,...
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Book Reviews
Visionary Leadership: Creating a Compelling Sense of Direction for Your Organization Burt Nanus. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1992, 237 pp. Credibility: How Leaders Gain and Lose It, Why People Demand It James M. Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner. San Francisco,...
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Vol. 13, No. 2, June

International Accounting and Finance: Introduction
Jean-Claude Cosset Jeffrey Kantor During the past two decades, there has been a dramatic growth in the globalization of goods and securities markets, which has required users and preparers of financial statements to focus on internationalization-both...
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The Relationship among Accounting Choices Prior to Mandatory Accounting Rules, Information Disclosure, and Timing of Adoption of Mandatory Rules
Abstract Information disclosure theory suggests that voluntary accounting choices may be substitutes for information produced under mandatory accounting rules, and that late adopters of mandatory accounting rules manage information disclosure via choice...
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The Heritage of International Finance
Abstract This paper examines the heritage of international academic finance. Definitions of international empirical and theoretical research are proposed, and an economic characterization of a nation is offered. In addition, an extensive taxonomy of...
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Procrastination and Task Avoidance: Theory, Research, and Treatment
Procrastination and Task Avoidance: Theory, Research, and Treatment J.R. Ferrari, J.L.. Johnson, and W.G. McCown & Associates. New York: Plenum, 1995, 268 pp. I have a confession to make: This book review was three weeks late-and that's nothing compared...
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Thatcher, Reagan, Mulroney: In Search of a New Bureaucracy
Thatcher, Reagan, Mulroney: In Search of a New Bureaucracy Donald J. Savoie. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 1994, 414 pp. There is a long-standing debate in the public administration literature about the compatibility and usefulness of business...
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Vol. 13, No. 1, March

A Contingency Theory of Human Resource Management Devolution
The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1) to use concepts derived from market failures theory and organizational economics (Ouchi, 1980; Williamson, 1975) to explain a continuum of organizational relationships, or contracts (McLean Parks & smith,...
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Cognitive Processes and Computer Advances in Job Evaluation: Innovation in Reverse?
Perhaps no other topic in human resources has been the subject of as much ideological acclaim, lip service, and public and private damnation as job evaluation. Job evaluation has been hailed as a means of allowing salary decisions to be delegated more...
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Designing Team-Based Organizations: New Forms for Knowledge Work; A Force of Ones: Reclaiming Individual Power in a Time of Teams, Work Groups, and Other Crowds
In the past few years it seems that the entire administrative science domain has been invaded by books describing theories and practices relating to teams. Teams can be studied in many fields: organizational behaviour, organizational development, human...
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Self-Employment in the Canadian Sub-Arctic: An Exploratory Study
The literature on self-employment can be divided into several schools of thought, each with its theories and explanatory variables. Some explanations are convincing with respect to self-employment in specific groups, but are less applicable to others.Although...
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Vol. 12, No. 3, September

Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Performance in a University Setting
A primary emphasis of human resource management (HRM) is to improve the effectiveness of an organization's human resources using the processes of selection, performance appraisal, and training (Latham & Fry, 1998). Historically, HRM research has...
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Persistence of Stock Return Volatility in Canada
It is widely recognized that returns on high frequency financial data exhibit a certain regularity in the variance represented by volatility clustering. This clustering phenomenon, which is indicative of a temporal dependence in the conditional variance...
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The Economic Effect of Differing Levels of Auditor Assurance on Bankers' Lending Decisions
This study examines the economic impact of three different levels of auditor assurance on loan decisions of bank loan officers. Sixty-seven experienced loan officers were administered a research instrument containing a hypothetical loan application with...
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Vol. 12, No. 2, June

Applying Quality Principles in Business Schools: Potential and Limitations
Business schools in both North America (O'Reilly, 1994a, 1994b) and Europe (The Economist, 1994a, 1994b) e under pressure to change. Businesses who hire their graduates are increasingly dissatisfied with their education and training and are quite vocal...
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Book Reviews - Managing Human Resources, Human Resource Management in Canada (5Th Edition), Human Resource Management: The Canadian Dynamic (2Nd Edition), Human Resource Management (3Rd Edition)
If the changing demands of the environment and the work force require, above all, flexibility, understanding, and adaptability from human resource (HR) activities, it should be expected that books dealing with human resource management (HRM) will call...
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The Evolution of Quality Management: An Overview of the TQM Literature
The success of Japanese competitors in North American and European markets has long been attributed to the superior quality of their products (Feigenbaum, 1984; Lee & Ebrahimpour, 1985; Mito 1982). Various initiatives have been proposed to enable...
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What Is TQM Research?
Total quality management (TQM) in its various forms and permutations has become an established management system in many North American companies. In general, this system is designed as an integrated, customer-focused approach to improve the quality...
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Vol. 12, No. 1, March

A Model of Human Resources Management Effectiveness
Organizations in the industrialized nations are going through one of the toughest periods in memory. Economic recession, a decline in employment opportunities, and an increasing demand from all stakeholders to do more with less have placed severe strains...
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A Variation on the Origin and Characteristics of the Modern Corporation
In his Pulitzer Award-winning The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business, Chandler (1977) traces the evolution of the modern corporation in the United States. Chandler describes those characteristics which distinguish the modern...
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Canadian Traditions and Directions in Information Systems Research
As a field of study matures, interest in its evolution and future increases. Individuals begin to study the choice of research topics and methods. Frameworks for research emerge, authors call for overarching theory to guide research, and articles appear...
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Vol. 11, No. 4, December

A Marketing Perspective on Women in Management: An Exploratory Study
In Canada, women have been entering the work force in unprecedented numbers. Females account for 94 percent of the employment growth between 1981 and 1986, and more than 74 percent of women aged 25 to 44 years work outside the home (Labour Force Activity,...
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Job Involvement: An Analysis of Its Determinants among Male and Female Teachers
Interest in the concept of job involvement has grown in recent years, beyond its value as an index of the quality of work life (Cherns & Davis, 1975), because of the concept's fundamental importance to the understanding of work behaviours like turnover,...
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Quality Is Personal: A Foundation for Total Quality Management
Harry Roberts and Bernard Sergesketter have written a book that applies total quality management (TQM) at a personal level. The underlying notion is that TQM is a broad and somewhat vague concept in the minds of many people. To make it more concrete,...
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The Community Ecology of Large Canadian Companies, 1984-1991
Based on an extensive study of 25 Canadian industries, Michael Porter (1991, p. 4) recently concluded that the Canadian economy is at a crossroads and cautioned that Canadian industry is in many respects ill-equipped to respond to a rapidly changing...
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Use of Perceptions in Employee Selection by Accounting Firms
An indicator of the success of a university business department is the quality of the firms that hire graduates of their programs. Professors directly or indirectly acknowledge the importance of recruiting as they frequently counsel graduating students...
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Vol. 11, No. 2, June

American-Style Accreditation and Its Application in Canada: Perceptions of Utility
In the United States, the process of accreditation determines, in large measure, the legitimacy of degree-granting institutions. Additionally, university-based business education programs may also be accredited by American Assembly of Collegiate Schools...
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Corporate Financial Decision Making in Canada
In recent years, Canadian corporations have been confronted with many changes, including tax reform, the free trade agreement, increased volatility in stock and foreign exchange markets, liberalization of Canadian financial markets, and the globalization...
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Vol. 11, No. 1, March

Market Efficiency: Experiences with Nikkei Put Warrants
In the past several years, many exchanges in North America and Europe have introduced options on foreign stock indexes. The most popular are Nikkei put warrants (hereafter, NPWs). In Canada, six NPWs have been listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange (see...
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Performance Attribution Using a Multivariate Intertemporal Asset Pricing Model with One State Variable
The measurement of portfolio performance is traditionally based on a division of the information set used by fund managers. Stock picking refers to a fund managers's ability to identify mispriced firms. Market timing refers to a fund manager's ability...
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The Corporate Use of Debt Substitutes in Canada: A Test of Competing Versions of the Substitution Hypothesis
De Angelo and Masulis (1980) (hereafter, DM) presented a theory of capital structure based on a single period state preference model with a tax code that incorporates a corporate tax rate and personal tax rates on bond and stock income (where the former...
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Vol. 10, No. 4, December

Biggest Is Best? Strategic Assumptions and Actions in the Canadian Audit Industry
Many firms appear to invest considerable energy in developing mission statements, strategic plans, and implementation strategies. There are similar pressures for nations to think and act strategically. Individuals, organizations and governments are urged...
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Empirical Analysis of Exempt Takeover Offers on the Toronto Stock Exchange
The underlying policy of the takeover bid provisions of the current Ontario Securities Act is to ensure equal treatment of all holders of a class of publicly traded shares. The Act quires that in a takeover bid for a class of shares of a company in which...
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Self-Efficacy, Outcome Expectancy and Performance of International Joint Venture General Managers
With current trends of globalization and increasing competitive and technological challenges, joint ventures have become a critical component of many firms' international competitive strategies. These ventures involve two or more legally distinct organizations...
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