IBAR

Articles

Vol. 21, No. 2, 2000

Phases in the Strategy Formation Process: An Exploratory Study of Irish SMEs
Introduction This paper provides a description of how strategies form and evolve in the small to medium-sized enterprise (SME). The results are based on a series of nine case studies and the methodology used involved an intensive, longitudinal, inductive...
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The Enigma of Marketing Information
`Man can embody truth, but he cannot know it' (W. B. Yeats) Introduction In today's intensely competitive global business environment managers believe that the effective use of information can lead to competitive advantage. In this ever-changing environment...
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Use of the Internet by Irish Companies for Investor Relations Purposes
BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION This study investigates Irish company investor relations material on the Internet from two perspectives. Firstly, it looks at the extent Irish plc's provide Web sites for investor relations purposes. Secondly, it looks at...
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Implementing a Balanced Scorecard: An Irish Example
INTRODUCTION The focus of this paper is the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) within an Irish division of a multinational company. The division operates within the semi-conductor industry and, for reasons of confidentiality, is subsequently...
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Human Resource Management Practices in SME's: A Comparative Analysis of Family and Non-Family Businesses
Introduction: It has become widely acknowledged during the last decade or so that large mainstream companies in the UK have adopted a new agenda for managing people. However, relatively little is know about the impact of this new agenda on small businesses....
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Of Shadow and Substance: The Dilemma of Measuring Innovation
Contemporary accounts and trends underscore the centrality of creativity and innovation in business and management practice. Such competing values as, for instance, development, consolidation or stabilisation are in no way as appealing as concepts in...
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On-Site Adjustment Support for German Expatriates in the Republic of Ireland: An Exploratory Study
Introduction Given the favourable investment conditions of comparatively low corporate taxes and a reasonably well skilled but - in a Western European context - still less expensive labour force, it is unsurprising that the Republic of Ireland continues...
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Paradox in Policy and Practice: Trade Unions and Public Policy in the Republic of Ireland
Introduction This paper considers the interaction of public policy and industrial relations in the Republic of Ireland. Using recent research data the paper evaluates current developments in industrial relations with particular emphasis on the role of...
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Vol. 21, No. 1, 2000

Diversity and Innovation: Management Research in Ireland at the Start of a New Millennium
Introduction This volume of Irish Business and Administrative Research (!BAR) represents a very significant development in management research in Ireland. Based on the selected best papers from the 1999 Irish Academy of Management Conference, held at...
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Social Partnership in Ireland: A View from Below
Introduction Since 1987, social partnership type agreements between trade unions, employers and government have been the dominant feature of collective bargaining in Ireland. Such agreements also occurred in an earlier period from 1970 to 1980 but were...
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Transport Costs in the Irish Food Industry: Backloading Issues
Introduction Foley and Wayne (1993) define backloading as situations in which a the transporter obtains a load for the return journey home where "home" can be interpreted as back to or close to base. This paper examines the potential of the Irish food...
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Integrating Human Resource Management and Business Strategy in the Northern Ireland Clothing Industry: A Case of Oil and Water?
Introduction The goal of strategic integration lies at the heart of Guest's (1987) model of Human Resource Management (HRM). Legge (1995) cites Guest (1987) in identifying three aspects of strategic integration: the integration or "fit" of human resources...
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Accounting for Feminisation and the Feminisation of Accounting in Ireland: Gender and Self-Evaluation in the Context of Uncertain Accounting Information
Introduction Accounting is a discipline defined by its context (Freear, 1977). In recent years, the context of accounting has changed dramatically in a number of respects. The transactions and events which accounting attempts to represent are subject...
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Vol. 19/20, No. 2, 1998

Service in Ireland: A Comparative Study of Practice and Performance
Introduction Ireland, with its reputation for easy-going and friendly people, might be expected to have service organisations that perform well when customer contact is such an important contributor to good service performance. However, until relatively...
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The Listening Organisation: A Segmentation Approach to Service Quality Information
Introduction In today's turbulent business environment, it is becoming increasingly difficult to predict changes with sufficient accuracy and reliability in order to permit a timely response. This difficulty is clearly documented in both the service...
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Lessons to Be Learnt from Studying Quality Management in a Developing Economy
Managing the Quality Process In recent years much has been written on quality management, largely emanating from developments in Japan and the USA. Europe has followed a similar route but has also more aggressively pursued the notion of third party quality...
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The Human Resource Implications of Quality Initiatives: Sectoral Differences?
Introduction This article reports on the human resource implications of quality initiatives and then considers whether manufacturing and service companies involved in the implementation of quality programmes adopt similar approaches in their handling...
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Quality Management Practices: A Review of the Literature
Introduction In this paper we review the literature on quality management practices. In doing so, it is recognised that theory development and theory testing within this discipline is a relatively recent phenomenon and that much of the emergent literature...
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Tracing the Evolution of Quality Management: Lessons from the Development of Strategic Management
Introduction Quality management has reached an impasse in its development. It is now consigned to be a management tool compared to the strategic advantages for which it was heralded (Wilkinson and Wilmott, 1995). The initial stages of the development...
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The Anonymous Leader: Appointed CEOs in Western Local Government
The Anonymous Leader: Appointed CEOs in Western Local Government, (Eds.) Klausen, Kurt and Annick Magnier, Odense University Press, 1998, pb, 312 pp. ISBN 87-7838-413-3 The Anonymous Leader is a compilation of observations relating to the "highest ranking...
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In Pursuit of Excellence: A Survey of Irish Manufacturing and Service Organisations
Introduction In reviewing the adoption of Total Quality/Business Excellence approach in Irish companies it is worth noting that most traditional definitions of "quality" refer to a static (and presumably achievable) state, for example the American Society...
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Sole Survivors: How Exceptional Companies Survive and Thrive at the Edge
Sole Survivors: How Exceptional Companies Survive and Thrive at the Edge by Anto T. Kerins, Oak Tree Press, Dublin, 1999, pb, 420 pp, 18.95, 24 Euro. ISBN 1 860T6 131 3 The footwear industry, together with textiles and clothing, were among the first...
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Vol. 19/20, No. 1, 1998

Innovation-The Case for Multi-Level Research
It is now generally recognised that we are in the midst of major economic upheaval, with the kind of ramifications not seen since the industrial revolution of the early nineteenth century. Products of the human mind, such as software, pharmaceuticals...
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Income Equality in the Irish Labour Market: Changes in Earnings and Taxation Levels, 1987 to 1995
INCOME EQUALITY IN THE IRISH LABOUR MARKET: CHANGES IN EARNINGS AND TAXATION LEVELS, 1987 TO 1995^ Introduction In his seminal work in the early 1970s Daniel Bell outlined an optimistic scenario for the developed industrial societies. Bell (1973) predicted...
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The Development of Transferable Skills in Business Studies Degrees
Introduction At a recent conference of the Confederation of British Industry (CBI), the Education Secretary, David Blunkett informed the delegates "that the government planned to build more employment skills and work experience into the higher education...
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The Changing Nature of Turkish Trade Unions since 1980
Introduction The main purpose of this article is to examine the contemporary Turkish unions and their struggle in the context of the changing economic, political and social structure of Turkey since 1980. The year of 1980 has been chosen as the starting...
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International Competitiveness of the Irish Shellfish Processing Industry-An Adapted Porterian Analysis
Introduction This paper summarises the findings of a study of the international competitiveness of the Irish shellfish processing industry in Ireland, using an adapted Porterian model (Ryan, 1996). Porter's 1990 model of international competitiveness...
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Business Student Perceptions of Favourite and Effective Instructors: Do They Differ?
Introduction In 1953, Dale Camegie published one of the first modem 'self-help' books, entitled "How to win friends and influence people". The purpose of this note is to question whether Irish business students require their instructors to act on the...
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Knowledge Based Strategic Alliances and Value Creation: A Study of Biotechnology Firms Quoted on the London Stock Exchange
Acknowledgments I gratefully acknowledge the financial support of University College Dublin and the U.K. Design Council. This paper has benefited from the advice and comments of Professor Charles Baden-Fuller, Alison Dean, Amir Alizadeh, Manolis Liodakis,...
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The Entrepreneur, Risk-Perception and Change over Time: A Typology Approach
Studies on entrepreneurship The predominant perspective in the literature on entrepreneurs and SMEs has been the personality trait theory (Wilken, 1979; Brockhaus, 1980; Sexton and Bowman, 1985; Begley and Boyd, 1986; McGrath et al. 1992). The point...
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Globalisation and the Northern Ireland Labour Market
Much attention has been given to the impact of international trade with developing economies on labour markets within the developed world. Some studies suggest that such trade is responsible, at least in part, for the widening earnings gap between the...
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Legal Culture and Legal Fees: A Comparison of England and Ireland
Introduction Ireland experiences the highest motor and liability insurance premiums in the European Union. Because of the political implications attempts have been made by government to reduce these expenses by attacking the main constituent of these...
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Technical Workers and the Multinational Corporation
HRM, Technical Workers and the. Multinational Corporation. Patrick McGovern. Roudedge 1998, hb 194pp. ISBN 04.15-18487-18 Pat McGovern's pioneering contribution to the sociology of work in Ireland is the first major in-depth study of the impact of contemporary...
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Corporate Financial Crisis in Ireland
Corporate Financial Crisis in Ireland, Edward Cahill. Gill and Macmillan: 1997, Dublin, L35 (hb). Over the last ten years a number of major Irish companies such as Goodman International, GPA and PMPA have either collapsed or been on the verge of extinction....
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The Drucker Foundation Future Series: The Leader of the Future (1996)
The Drucker Foundation Future Series: The Leader of the Future (1996) edited by Frances Hesselbein, Marshall Goldsmith and Richard Beckhard, Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, ISBN 0-7879-0180-6, 23.00; The Organization ofthe Future (1997) edited by Frances...
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Vol. 18, 1997

The Management of Labour in Europe: Is Human Resource Management Challenging Industrial Relations?
Ariane Hegewisch, Olga Tregaskis and Michael Morley* Introduction Across Europe there is debate about the challenge of human resource management (HRM) to traditional or established industrial relations. The challenges are seen to arise from such major...
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The Use of Foreign Languages by Irish Exporters
Christine Cromie, Bill Clarke and Stanley Cromie* Introduction While many firms are content with their existing output and have no desire to grow, there are many who do want to expand operations. If this is the case they will often first of all seek...
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Irish Event Studies: Earnings Announcements, Turn of the Year and Size Effects
John Cotter* Introduction Following the seminal study of stock splits by Fama, Fisher, Jensen and Roll (196) event studies have become an important part of finance. The growth of this research has centred on major international stock markets, with the...
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Business Education and Business Research in Ireland: The Ways of the Past and the Way Ahead
William K. Roche* I would like to begin by thanking the organisers of this conference for inviting me to give the keynote address. I believe that the conference could prove to be a watershed event in Irish management education. Its very occurrence is...
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Doing Management and Business Research in Irish Organisations: Reflections on Experience
Teresa Brannick, Sean De Burca, Brian Fynes, Liam Glynn and Laurence O'Connell* Introduction The relationship between ideas/theory, practical `business and management experiences' and evidence/empirical research is a complex and much disputed issue....
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Corporate Governance Practices in Irish Companies
Introduction This paper examines abroad range of corporate governance practices in Irish public and commercial semi-state companies based on data published in annual reports. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the level of compliance by Irish...
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Management Accounting Practices in Large Irish Manufacturing Firms
Peter J. Claire* Introduction The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a survey which collected information on management accounting practices used by Irish manufacturing companies. The results may be of interest to academics for three...
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Antecedents to Expatriate Satisfaction, Commitment and Involvement: A Study of ESB International
Robert Wasson * Expatriation in ESB International The Electricity Supply Board (ESB) is Ireland's national electricity utility. ESB is responsible for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity in the Republic of Ireland. Established...
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Horizontal Power Differences: An Exploratory Study
Derek O'Byrne, Brian Leavy* Introduction In the late 1970s power was still regarded as a `dirty word' in organisation studies (Salancik and Pfeffer 1977). Of course. it was widely recognised at the time that power and politics were a significant feature...
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Countertrade in a Transitional Market Economy: The Chinese Experience
J L Simpson * Introduction The processes of internationalisation and market reform are occurring rapidly in China and other transitional market economies (TMEs). TMEs are the new socialist market economies born out of centrally planned economies after...
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Punts, Pounds and Euros: In Search an Optimum Currency Area
J. Peter Neary and D. Rodney Thom* "What is the appropriate domain of a currency area's It might seem at first sight that the question is purely academic since it hardly appears within the realm of political feasibility that national currencies would...
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Rhythms of Academic Life: Personal Accounts of Careers in Academia
Rhythms of Academic Life: Personal Accounts of Careers in Academia, (Eds.) Peter J Frost & Susan Taylor. Sage, 1996, pb 518 pp, 22.95. ISBN 0-8039-7262-8 This is a most interesting book for academics as it addresses many issues in the professional...
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Vol. 17, 1996

Multinational Companies in Ireland: Adapting to or Diverging from National Industrial Relations Practices and Traditions?
The impact of multinational companies on Irish industrial relations practice has long been the focus of scholarship and debate. The orientating question has generally been which effect has had the greater influence: the so-called `country-of-operation'...
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The Personnel Management Function in Ireland: Models and Prospects
Patrick Gunnigle* Introduction This paper reviews the development of the personnel function in Ireland, considers some key challenges facing the function and assesses prospects for the function as we face the next century. In tracing its development...
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Working at Restructuring Work in Europe: The Case of Team Working
In recent years, there has been much talk of, and experimentation with, new production methodologies and new forms of work organisation like lean production, total quality management and world class manufacturing. Commentators and practitioners alike...
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Team Aer Lingus and Irish Steel: An Application of the Declining High-Wage Industries Literature
Frank Barry and Joseph Durkan* Introduction Since wage stickiness generates unemployment or intersectoral labour transfer in excess of that associated with a flexible-wage adjustment process, it is frequently argued that declining industries should be...
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Irish Managers' Perceptions of Business Ethics
Managers of corporations increasingly find themselves in quandaries over ethics (Beauchamp & Bowie 1993; Brady 1990; Maclagan 1983). In the past few years, Ireland has seen a number of business scandals entailing stock flotation deceptions at Superwood,...
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Ethical Reasoning Abilities: Accountancy Practitioners in Ireland
Introduction The academic community and the media have recently devoted a great deal of attention to the topic of ethics in the business professions. As Brooks (1995) notes, "professional ethics are a prime differential between professionals and people...
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Examining the Profit-Efficiency Relationship in Irish Credit Institutions
Brian M. Lucey* Introduction The aim of this paper is twofold, first to present evidence regarding the returns earned by depository credit institutions in Ireland and second, the bulk of the paper, to look at the possible theories that might be hypothesized...
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Strategic Pragmatism: The Culture of Singapore's Economic Development Board
Edgar H. Schein, Strategic Pragmatism: the Culture of Singapore's Economic Development Board, MIT Press, 1996, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 275 pages, US $27.50, 275pp. "This book is about the culture of Singapore's Economic Development Board (EDB) a quasi-government...
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Labour-Management Partnerships: U.S. Evidence and Implications for Ireland
Introduction For many years after publication of The Transformation of American Industrial Relations (Kochan, Katz & McKersie 1986), we observed only scant evidence that the transformation process, especially at the strategic level, was actually...
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Vol. 17, No. 1, 1996

Guest Editors' Introduction-Top Management Teams: A Neglected Topic in Strategic Human Resource Management
Abstract The IBAR special issue on Top Management Teams (TMTs) is presented to disseminate current theoretical and empirical advances in TMT research, increase understanding of the problems and opportunities of TMT research, and to stimulate future research...
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Human Resource Management Practices, Business Strategies, and Firm Performance: A Test of Strategy Implementation Theory
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES, BUSINESS STRATEGIES, AND FIRM PERFORMANCE: A TEST OF STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION THEORY1 Abstract A moderated regression analysis was used to relate sixteen top management team HRM practices to firm performance under...
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Top Management Team Demography and Process: The Role of Social Integration and Communication
Abstract This research used data from 53 high-technology firms to test three alternative models of the effects of the top management team's demography and process on organizational performance: ( 1 ) a demography model, in which team demography accounts...
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Top Management Successions: The Choice between Internal and External Sources
Abstract There is no conclusive evidence on the firm's preference in appointments of top management. In this study four theoretical hypotheses on the likely source of appointment (internal vs. external) are examined using multivariate logistic regressions...
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The Impact of the Top Management Team on the Sales Growth Performance of International Divisions of US Multinational Enterprises Operating in the Republic of Ireland
Abstract This paper examines the relationship between top management team demography, team process and the sales growth performance of a sample of international divisions of US multinationals operating in Ireland. Demographic and team process characteristics...
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Toward a Research Agenda on Top Management Teams and Strategy Implementation
Abstract This paper addresses the question, "What's next in research on top management teams and strategic effectiveness?" Specifically, we focus on the relationship between top management teams and strategy implementation and suggest that strategy implementation...
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Vol. 16, 1995

An Analysis of the Investment Appraisal Practices of Irish Companies
IntroductionThe objective of this paper is to analyse, on two levels, the investment appraisal practices of the top 1,000 Irish companies. The first level is a standard extent of usage analysis, deriving some basic structural data on investment appraisal...
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An Investigation into the Hedging Effectiveness of the Irish Interest Rate Futures Market
IntroductionThe economic rationale for the existence of futures markets is that they facilitate hedging: they allow the more risk averse market participants to transfer the risk of price changes to speculators more willing to bear such risks. Recent...
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A Relationship Marketing Approach to Spectators as Consumers
IntroductionThe reigning paradigm that dominates the traditional marketing approach has been criticised for being incomplete and manipulative and for not taking into account the interaction and relationship aspect of marketing. Interactions and relationships...
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Defining Uncertainty: The Implications for Strategic Management
IntroductionThe uncertainty construct dominates the administrative science literature and the management of uncertainty has been identified as the primary task facing managers (Thompson, 1967; Weick, 1969). Uncertainty arises from both the ambiguous...
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Environmental Management in Northern Ireland Business: The Green Initiative
IntroductionEnvironmental considerations are rapidly emerging as a very important issue for business and management in the 90s (Klassen, 1993; Hutchinson and Chaston, 1994; Green Economy Working Group Report, 1994). Legal and public pressure in Europe...
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Materialism and Its Measurement
"He thought they were successful, she thought they were blessed,With objects and material things, but I never was impressed,And when it all came crashing down, I became withdrawn,The only thing I knew how to do was to keep on keepin' on,Like a bird that...
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The Evolution of Privatisation in Turkey and Its Impact on Turkish Trade Unions
IntroductionIn many countries, irrespective of their regimes or stages of development, the policies of governments in the 1980s dramatically shifted in favour of market-based solutions as opposed to the previous dominant "Keynesian" approach to economic...
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The Introduction of Programmes to Prevent Accidents at Work: A Strategic Analysis
IntroductionEvery working day in Ireland there are, according to the 1993 Labour Force Survey, 62 work-related accidents, injuries or other incidents damaging to health. These have resulted, among other things, in around 3,000 people being off work for...
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Vol. 15, 1994

Developments in Industrial Relations and HRM in the Republic of Ireland
IntroductionUsing recent research data from the Price Waterhouse Cranfield Study this paper considers current developments in industrial relations at establishment level in the Republic of Ireland. Firstly, the nature and context of industrial relations...
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Entrepreneurship: The Role of the Individual in Small Business Development
While few scholars would claim nowadays that small businesses are the panacea for the economic ills of a country, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that a rising rate of new firm formation, together with efforts to improve the performance of existing...
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Expatriates and Their Spouses: A Pilot Study in the Limerick Region, and Directions for Future Research
Increased internationalisation of business has resulted in more employees spending time in foreign locations as expatriate workers (Gregersen and Black, 1992). Nowhere is this more true than in the European Community. Linkages between E.C. member countries...
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Research as a Process of Change: Action Science in Organisations
As the process of organisational change is frequently, if not typically, a complex somewhat messy sequence of plans, meetings, conflicts, revisions and compromises between individuals, teams, across the inter-departmental group in order that an organisation...
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The Craft of Case-Based Qualitative Research
For many years qualitative research in the business studies field remained a minor tradition. It is only relatively recently that the whole debate about whether qualitative methods in general, and the case method in particular, are legitimate 'scientific'...
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The Culliton Report: The Resource Issue of Women in Management
Given that the Culliton Report makes no specific reference to women, the question might be asked: why look at it in relation to women in management. The answer is in the two major themes running through the report itself: the need to optimise the use...
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The Flexible Labour Market: The Case of Homeworking
IntroductionAccording to many commentators and employers, the 1990s is being seen as the decade of flexibility in employment. High unemployment rates of previous decades are being attributed to labour market inflexibilities, and some writers are urging...
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A Team Approach to Job Design
IntroductionThere have been numerous anecdotal accounts of high performance work teams in both the academic and the business literature. Indeed, Peters (1987) almost raises the team working concept to that of an orthodoxy calling for modest-sized, task...
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Confronting Organisational Change: A Northern Ireland Case Study
IntroductionBritish post-war defence policy has been dominated by the progressive abandonment of Empire. Dockrill (1988) notes that this has required the British Army to refine and develop the military and policing skills associated with colonial disengagement....
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The Role of Simulation in Solving Complex Operations Management Problems: A Review
This paper begins with an explanation of what is meant by modelling and shows simulation to be a sub-set of modelling. It then discusses the nature of simulation and how it may be used to solve particular types of management problems. The development,...
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The Role of Structured Interventions in Shaping Graduate Entrepreneurship
IntroductionWhile there has been significant research on various aspects of entrepreneurship during the past decade, only a limited number of research studies have focused on the performance and results of entrepreneurship education. The need for research...
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Top Teams in SMEs: A Cross-Border Comparison
IntroductionThe characteristics of the successful organisation have arguably been, the major research area in management in the last quarter of the twentieth century. The research has focused largely on the characteristics of individual team members...
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Vol. 14, No. 2, 1993

Expatriates and Their Spouses: A Pilot Study in the Limerick Region, and Directions for Future Research
Increased internationalisation of business has resulted in more employees spending time in foreign locations as expatriate workers (Gregersen and Black, 1992). Nowhere is this more true than in the European Community. Linkages between E.C. member countries...
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Innovations in Organisational Structure
INTRODUCTIONOrganisational structure has been changing fast in recent years and it seems likely that this trend will continue. The main impetus has come from changes in the business environment, which has moved from being a relatively stable and static...
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Research Methodology and the Management Disciplines: The Need for Heterogeneity
As those of us involved in the relevant disciplines are all too aware, doing social science research of any description is not at all easy. The enormity of the problems facing researchers is made frighteningly clear by Seelye (1963), cited in Easthope...
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Shop Stewards in Ireland: A Profile of Trade Union Activists in a General Union
INTRODUCTIONShop stewards are an essential part of union government. However, the role of the shop steward in Irish industrial relations has received little attention--with the notable exception of Murphy (1981) and Wallace and O'Shea (1987). As a result,...
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The EC and BIS Risk Weighted Capital Adequacy Measures: A Critical Analysis
INTRODUCTIONIn July 1988 the Basle Committee on Banking Regulations and Supervisory Practices (Basle Committee) published a document proposing new rules for the regulation of bank capital. In 1991 the EC Own Funds and Solvency Ratio Directives came into...
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The Impact of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) on Competitiveness in Retail Supply Chains
Increasingly, management attention is focusing on the issue of how the flows of material and information passing along the supply chain can be managed more effectively. Over the past number of years, developments have taken place in the information technology...
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The Relationship between Accounting Information and Security Returns on the Irish Stock Exchange
INTRODUCTIONExisting and potential shareholders in quoted public limited companies have access to many sources of information for their investment decisions. Published accounting reports are one such data source. For a variety of reasons, interested...
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The Use of Micro Computers in Corporate Planning: A Research Note
INTRODUCTIONMany researchers have reported an increase in the use of computers in companies, as information processing and decision-making aids in addition to their use in data processing (Naylor and Schauland 1976, Higgins and Finn 1977, Holloway and...
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Value-Adding Partnerships as Alternatives to Vertical Integration: An Exploratory Discussion by Reference to Some Northern Ireland Examples
INTRODUCTIONUntil recently organisation theorists believed that organisational growth was natural. (Robbins 1987: 384). Various models of continuous growth and development were propounded (Greiner 1972; Weinshall and Raveh 1983). It was assumed that...
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Dividend Policy and Its Relationship to Investment and Financing Policies: Empirical Evidence Using Irish Data
INTRODUCTIONThis paper investigates the relationship between dividend, investment and financing decisions. The empirical evidence is based upon a questionnaire survey of those companies listed on the Irish Stock Market in 1989. Recent research has concentrated...
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