Canadian-American Public Policy

Publication covering public policy in Canada and the U.S.


Vol. 82, May

Myth and Reality in Eastern Canada-Northeastern U.S. Regionalism
For generations, supporters of regionalization (whether within or across provincial/ state borders) have talked about the inevitability of change, and the need to bring different interests together to produce common or shared objectives and values....
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Is New England Regionalism in Decline?
The New England Governors' Conference recently changed in a fundamental 'vav. But there was little public knowledge, debate or understanding that a tradition that has gone back generations is no longer an institutional reality. Nor was there much understanding...
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Hyper-Partisanship and State-Building
Personalities and the ways political actors perceive one another are large factors in determining patterns of collaboration or competition. There has always been much academic debate about whether external challenges matter more than internal historical--institutional...
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Province-Building: Moving South?
In Canada, intergovernmental relations have also changed, first minister's meetings are less common, and politics often trumps policy. (26) Images of Danny Williams (NL premier, 2003-2012) taking down the Canadian flag, (27) or his attack on New Brunswick's...
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The Declining Role of Networks to Sustain a Regional Idea
One of the greatest mysteries surrounding the decline of the New England Governors' Conference has been the lack of response or discussion of regional issues among its traditional supporters. It may be comparable to a declining baseball team that no...
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While functional thinkers emphasize the impact that external forces have on patterns of agenda- setting and public policy, recent experiences in Eastern Canada and New England discussed in this paper shed light on the power of embedded processes and...
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Vol. 81, December

Changes in Canada-U.S. Trade in Intermediate versus Final Goods: Identification and Assessment: STEVEN GLOBERIVAN PAUL STORER
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A conventional view of Canada-U.S. economic integration is one of the two countries "making things together" rather than simply selling final goods and services to each other. Indeed, one of the major concerns expressed by business...
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Changes in Canada-U.S. Trade in Intermediate versus Final Goods: Identification and Assessment: STEVEN GLOBERIVAN PAUL STORER
REFERENCES Anderson, James and Eric Van Wincoop (2004)."Trade Costs."Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. XIII, pp. 691-751. Bergstrand, Jeffrey and Peter Egger (2008)."The Growth of FDI Relative to Trade: Measurement, Determinants and Consequences...
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No. 80, September

Expanding the Partnership?: State and Provinces in U.S.-Canada Relations
I. INTRODUCTION For aspiring junior associates in most law firms, one of the more important issues they will confront is whether they will ever be made partner. Indeed, a Google search of "how to make partner in a law firm" reveals more than 9.5...
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No. 79, December

Irritable Border Syndrome: The Impact of Security on Travel across the Canada-U.S. Border
Table 9 Paired t-test analysis and results. Peace Arch Before After Average wait time 11.55 6.96 Maximum wait time 30.32 15.32 Minimum wait time 2.68 1.51 Standard deviation 7.29 ...
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No. 78, December

Continuity and Change in the Organization of Political Parties
EVALUATING CONTINUITY AND CHANGE The long-run fate of political parties competing for office can be explained through a diverse range of organizational theories that locate them in the interplay between the universal and contending social forces...
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No. 77, September

Canada-United States Electricity Relations: Test-Bed for North American Policy-Making?
1. INTRODUCTION It is often said of North America that we are not the European Union, that we do not share joint political institutions, and that we do not make policy supranationally. The conventional wisdom holds that cross-border policy relations...
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No. 76, February

"In the Pipeline" or "Over a Barrel"? Assessing Canadian Efforts to Manage U.S. Canadian Energy Interdependence
In recent years, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper has sought to promote Canada as an "energy superpower" and to appeal to U.S. energy insecurity as a basis for ongoing binational cooperation on energy and related environmental issues (for example,...
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No. 75, December

Sustainable Development in Small Jurisdictions: The Cases of New Brunswick and Vermont
INTRODUCTION Our world is in the midst of a crisis that is both economic and ecological. The 2008 collapse of the financial sector called into question many of the assumptions of neo-liberalism that had been dominant since the collapse of Keynesian...
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No. 74, May

Passports for All
INTRODUCTION: SECURE BORDERS, CHANGING DEFINITIONS In North America since September 11, 2001 (9/11), a so-called secure border surrounding the United States has replaced the traditional border which had prevailed for more than a century and the...
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No. 73, February

The Absence of Governance: Climate Change in Canada and the United States
There has been remarkably little formal collaboration between Canada and the United States on the issue of climate change policy, despite a wide range of mechanisms for cross-border engagement on common environmental concerns and a vast body of literature...
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No. 72, November

Canada-US Border Securitization: Implications for Binational Cooperation
ABSTRACT State borders are critical junctions where oppositional dynamics of exclusion and inclusion are played out. In the last eight years, transnational congruence inherent in economic globalization has clashed directly with the assertion of...
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No. 71, August

Managing Alternate Realities: 'Autonomy' vs. 'Relevance'? Engaging Us Foreign and Security Policies
1. INTRODUCTION Canadian foreign policy circles continue to debate how much the need for a cooperative relationship with the United States on issues of central importance to Canada circumscribes Canada's security and foreign policy options. A related...
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No. 70, April

Scred Cow? Canada's Response to the BSE Crisis; Evaluating North American Integration, Science, and Questions of Intrusiveness and Autonomy
I. INTRODUCTION This study focuses on foreign and domestic pressures related to Canada's first indigenous case of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in May 2003. At the international level, the integration of the North American cattle and beef...
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No. 69, January

Divergent Campaigns towards Global Health Governance: Canadian and U.S. Approaches to the Global HIV/AIDS Pandemic Jeffrey Ayres Patricia Siplon
I. INTRODUCTION In June 2001, delegates representing countries from around the world met in New York City for a United Nations (UN) General Assembly Special Session on HIV/ AIDS. This meeting took place at the start of a new millennium in an international...
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No. 68, December

Canada, a Land of Deep Ambivalence: Understanding the Divergent Response to US Primacy after 9/11
1. INTRODUCTION This paper examines the Canadian response to the terrorist attacks on the US on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9 /11), and the US policy and institutional changes that ensued as well. These changes are potentially profound...
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No. 67, August

Is Spotlighting Enough? Environmental NGOs and the Commission for Environmental Cooperation
INTRODUCTION The mainstreaming of environmentalism into the public consciousness is now an accepted part of policymaking in North America (Adams 2005: 2-3). In fact, Rosenbaum--in the sixth edition of his book Environmental Politics and Policy--argues...
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No. 66, April

Too Close? Too Far? Just Right? False Dichotomies and Canada-US Policy Making
INTRODUCTION Are Canada and the United States getting closer, or farther apart? Are Washington and Ottawa policies converging or diverging? Over the past half-century such dichotomies arose repeatedly in Canadian commentary on cross-border relations....
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No. 65, January

"When in Rome" Comparing Canadian and Mexican Strategies for Influencing Policy Outcomes in the United States
The United States is both very strong, in the sense that it towers over the rest of the world in virtually every measure of state capability, and very weak, in the sense that its policy-making process is extraordinarily fragmented and susceptible to...
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No. 64, December

The Impact of 9/11 on Trade Costs: A Survey
I. INTRODUCTION The trade partnership between Canada and the United States is known to be one of the strongest economic partnerships in the world. Its importance has been growing rapidly during the last decade due to the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement...
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No. 63, July

Lies, Damned Lies, and Trade Statistics: North American Integration and the Exaggeration of Canadian Exports
I. INTRODUCTION The pervasive notion that Canada is extraordinarily dependent on trade influences debates about foreign policy, domestic policy, and even the future of Confederation. Many commentators argue that securing access to foreign markets...
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No. 62, April

Municipal Consolidation Quebec Style: A Comparative North American Perspective (1)
I. INTRODUCTION In the United States, interest in consolidation of urban governments is cyclical. Many of the existing city-county consolidations occurred in the 1950's and 1960's. Recently, the successful city- government consolidations in Kansas...
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No. 61, January

Federalism Matters: Welfare Reform and the Inter-Governmental Balance of Power in Canada and the United States
"(We) believe that the restrictions attached by the federal government to transfer payments in areas of clear provincial responsibility should be minimized.... (T)he cost sharing approach of the past no longer helps the provinces, who have clear responsibility...
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No. 60, December

Boundaries and Corridors: Rethinking the Canada-United States Border-Lands in the Post-9/11
I. INTRODUCTION After September 11, 2001, the boundary between Canada and the United States became more apparent. The boundary line itself did not change, but crossing the border became more protracted, less civil and generally more complex. This...
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No. 59, October

Toward Deeper North American Integration: A Customs Union? (1)
I. INTRODUCTION In the last few years, a public as well as an academic debate has surfaced primarily, but by no means exclusively in Canada, about the desirability of deeper North American integration. A number of officials, among them former Finance...
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No. 58, September

Comparing Local Cross-Border Relations under the EU and NAFTA
INTRODUCTION (1) The literature on cross-border relations provides us with different reasons for the existence and development of cross-border linkages (that is--the connections that span an international border); it suggests that such relations...
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No. 57, August

Political Economy of the U.S.-Canada Softwood Lumber Dispute
The United States and Canada enjoy the benefits of the world's largest bilateral trading relationship. The United States accounts for about eighty percent of Canada's total foreign trade, and Canada accounts for more than twenty percent of the goods...
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No. 56, December

"Internation-Alization" and the Conservation of Canada's Boreal Ecosystems*
Over the past decade, students of domestic public policy have increasingly turned their attention outwards, incorporating analysis of various facets of globalization and internationalization into their accounts of the factors shaping policy processes...
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No. 55, November

Symbolic Tokenism in Canada-U.S. Cultural Sector Trade Relations
I. INTRODUCTION On July 1st 2002, the Globe and Mail ran an article under the headline, "Dominant U.S. Culture Worries Canadians," reporting that 61 percent of Canadians "defined the threat [of American culture] as very or somewhat important." Indeed,...
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No. 54, September

To Our Readers
Someone once said that periods of history exist only in books. What he meant is that the forces generating continuity and change are rarely self-evident in the stories of individuals or nations. Rather, scholars shape their chapters by making sometimes...
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U.S.-Canada Trade, Defense and Border Issues since September 11: The View from Canada
I. GENERAL ARGUMENT Closely interrelated public opinion on trade, border security, and defense issues has divided Canadians along predictable and traditional lines that reflect the persistence of certain continuities. As always, Canadians differ...
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Strains between Governments at the Top, Hands across the Border at the Base: The Role of Subnational Governments during the Bush-Chretien Era and Beyond
I. INTRODUCTION Although personal relationships between U.S. Presidents and Canadian prime ministers have often been cordial [e.g. Clinton-Chretien, Carter-Trudeau, G.H. Bush-Mulroney] and positively affected at least the atmosphere and tone if...
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Globalization and a Unipolar World: Canada and U.S. Relations at the Beginning of the 21st Century
I. INTRODUCTION: CANADA'S LOSS OF INNOCENCE In preparing a short analytical study on Canada-United States relations within a specific and brief time frame, one cannot help but recall some of the stereotypical catch phrases often cited in such endeavors...
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The Canada-U.S. Border: Achieving an Efficient Inter-Organizational Policy Coordination
I. INTRODUCTION The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States have triggered many questions concerning the security of the Canada-U.S. border. As events unfolded on that day, the actual border was closed for only a little more than...
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Comparing Forest Certification in the U.S. Northeast and the Canadian Maritimes
Students of comparative public policy (Howlett, 2000) and international relations (Haufler, 2001; Cutler, Haufler, and Porter, 1999; Hurd, 1999) have noted that in the last decade, the arena of private authority has become increasingly important for...
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North America beyond NAFTA? Sovereignty, Identity, and Security in Canada-U.S. Relations. (1)
I. INTRODUCTION* In basic geometry, we learn that the perimeter is the sum of the length of the sides enclosing a geometric space. It is about as linear a concept as one could imagine, a mere matter of locating a space, measuring the length of...
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To Our Readers
At first glance readers familiar with CAPP will observe that this issue departs from the usual format. Rather than featuring a single essay, Number 51 contains several of varying lengths by five scholars, all focused on a single topic--health care...
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Fact or Fiction? the Canadian Medicare "Crisis" as Viewed from the U.S. (Part I)
There are at present two conflicting images of Canada's Medicare available to observant adults in the United States. One is the conventional media portrait of crisis--from both U.S. and Canadian sources--an image of a program in deep trouble, overcome...
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Two Commentaries on "Fact or Fiction?" (Part II)
Ms. Riley is Executive Director, National Academy for State Health Care Policy, a non-profit forum consisting of health policy leaders from the executive and legislative branches of U.S. state governments. In [another essay] laying out options...
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National Values, Institutions, and Health Policies: What Do They Imply for [Canadian] Medicare Reform? (Part III)
I. INTRODUCTION The Medicare program, it is quite often asserted, is special for Canadians because the program is taken to embody something distinctive and superior about Canadian social values. For some Canadians, it follows that any effort...
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North American Transjurisdictional Cooperation: The Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment
I. INTRODUCTION The boundary between Canada and the United States has become the focus of interesting and fruitful research. Observers once simply applauded the ability of the two countries to maintain the "world's largest undefended border"...
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NAFTA 2002: A Cost/benefit Analysis for the United States, Canada, and Mexico
I. INTRODUCTION With the establishment or the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) in 1994, the United States, Canada, and Mexico have created the world's largest free trade zone involving over 400 million people and 11 trillion dollars in...
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From Public Good to Private Exploitation: Gats and the Restructuring of Canadian Electrical Utilities
I. INTRODUCTION (*) When George W. Bush announced the U.S. would pursue a North American Energy Framework, his idea was greeted with enthusiasm by the Canadian government and energy-exporting provinces. The public outcry that could have been expected...
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The 1999 Pacific Salmon Agreement: A Sustainable Solution?
I. INTRODUCTION When Canada and the United States signed the Pacific Salmon Agreement on June 30, 1999, they hoped that it would put an end to the pattern of bickering, failed negotiations, conservation-threatening harvest practices, and blame-laying...
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Washington's Response to the Ottawa Land Mines Process
[T]oday I am proposing a first step toward the eventual elimination of a less visible but still deadly threat: the world's 85 million anti-personnel land mines, one for every 50 people on the face of the Earth. I ask all nations to join with us and...
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North American Smog: Science-Policy Linkages across Multiple Boundaries
Within the North American context, the problem of ground-level ozone, or "smog," is not yet being addressed adequately. One reason for insufficient action is that there is conflict over what is to be done, and by whom. In the U.S., for example, when...
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CAPP's 10th Anniversary
In the spring of 1990 Peter Morici, a professor of economics at the University of Maine who had published widely on cross-border trade policy, launched Canadian-American Public Policy (CAPP) with the help of the Business Fund for Canadian Studies in...
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Doing the Continental: Conceptualizations of the Canadian-American Relationship in the Long Twentieth Century
I. AMERICAN POWER AND CANADIAN NATION-BUILDING In the course of its rich, lengthy, and complicated history, analysis and discussion of the Canadian-American relationship has moved through four main phases, each offering commentary on important aspects...
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No. 43, September

Comparative Politics of Military Base Closures
I. INTRODUCTION In democracies, domestic military base closures are seldom easy decisions for governments to make or implement. "There is a profound difference between extending benefits to large numbers of people and taking benefits away," political...
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No. 42, July

Should the Log and Wood Products Trade Be Regulated in the (U.S.) Northeastern Borderlands?
I. INTRODUCTION With its periodic trade disputes over potatoes, fishery products, logs and lumber, and woods labor, the northeastern borderlands would seem to have more than its share of trade irritants with Canada. Yet none of these industries...
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No. 41, February

Who Decides What? Civil-Military Relations in Canada and the United States
Drawing useful conclusions from comparative studies in civil-military relations is confounded by the fact that there are few measures that can be reliably applied across state boundaries, political ideologies, and time. Most studies begin from the...
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No. 40, October

Cross-Border Travel in North America: The Challenge of U.S. 110 Legislation
Globalization is contributing to the broadening and deepening of interdependence among societies and states, and events in one part of the world are having a greater impact on peoples and societies in distant locations. Many states and societal groups...
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No. 39, July

Unwarranted Hopes and Unfulfilled Expectations: Canadian Media Policy and the CBC
* An earlier version of this paper was prepared for delivery on November 20, 1997 during a panel on "Alice in Wonderland: The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in a Marketplace Culture," held at the Biennial Meeting of the Association for Canadian...
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No. 37, February

Scientists and Environmental Policy: A Canadian-U.S. Perspective
Leslie R. Alm is an associate professor of political science and public policy and administration at Boise State University. He holds an undergraduate degree from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point and a doctorate in political science from Colorado...
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No. 36, November

Not So Magnificent Obsession: The United States, Cuba, and Canada from Revolution to the Helms-Burton Law
Stephen J. Randall, FRSC, held the Imperial Oil-Lincoln McKay Chair in American Studies at the University of Calgary from 1989 to 1997 and is currently serving there as Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences. Among his recent books are (with G. S....
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No. 35, September

Fearful Asymmetries: The Challenge of Analyzing Continental Systems in a Globalizing World
Stephen Clarkson has been teaching political economy at the University of Toronto since 1964. Among his books are An Independent Foreign Policy for Canada? (1968); City Lib: Parties and Reform (1972); The Soviet Theory of Development: India and the...
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No. 34, April

Franchising the Candy Store: Split-Run Magazines and a New International Regime for Trade in Culture
Ted Madger is the director of communication studies and an associate professor of media ecology at New York University. Prior to that he was the director of the mass communication program at York University. He is the author of Canada's Hollywood:...
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Vol. 33, February

Transboundary Fishery Resources and the Canada-United States Pacific Salmon Treaty
Gordon R. Munro, an economist at the University of British Columbia, is the author (with Veijo Kaitala) of "The Conservation and Management of High Seas Fishery Resources," Natural Resource Modeling, vol. 10. (1997), and co-editor, with Daniel Gordon,...
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No. 32, December

Flights of the Phoenix: Explaining the Durability of the Canada-U.S. Softwood Lumber Dispute
Benjamin Cashore, an expert on forest resource policy in Canada and the United States, is currently a post-doctoral fellow in the forest economics and policy analysis research unit at the University of British Columbia. He holds advanced degrees in...
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No. 31, November

Observing the Rules: Canada-U.S. Trade and Environmental Relations
*A list of acronyms used in this article is provided on page 29. "...[For] Canada, it is better to have clear rules and fair-minded referees on the playing field than to be scrambling on someone else's terrain and playing, as often as not, according...
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No. 30, July

Are Canadian and U.S. Social Assistance Policies Converging?
Various interpretations of social policy in Canada and the United States alternatively see either persisting patterns of distinctiveness between these countries that appear likely to extend into the fore-seeable future, or warn that Canada may be on...
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No. 29, April

Long Journey to Free Trade in U.S.-Canada Airline Services
* A list of acronyms used in this article is provided on page 47. A professor of management at Texas A&M University, Michael W. Pustay is the author of International Business (with Ricky Griffin, 1996), "The Globalizing Airline Industry: The...
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No. 28, December

Calling Maggie's Bluff: The NAFTA Labor Agreement and the Development of an Alternative to Neoliberalism
While an employee of the U. S. Department of Labor, Stephen Herzenberg served as assistant to the chief negotiator for the NAFTA labor agreement. He is currently executive director of the Keystone Research Center in Harrisburg, PA. Among his recent...
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No. 27, September

Resolving the North American Subsidies War
I. BACKGROUND In negotiating the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA), a critical objective for both sides was to defuse and better manage the difficult issues surrounding industrial and regional development subsidies and the application of countervailing...
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No. 26, May

Health Care Reform or Health Care Rationing? A Comparative Study (Canada, the U.S. and the U.K.)
While the impact of the neo-conservative drift in Western states in the final decades of the twentieth century has been varied, yet everywhere it has provoked examination of the `allocation of scarce resources' in social policy fields. Health care...
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No. 25, February

Abortion Controversy in Canada and the United States
The political dynamics and policy processes which have affected the abortion controversy in the United States and Canada offer a unique opportunity for cross-cultural research on how regimes of fundamentally unlike character cope with contentious disputes...
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