Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental health magazine.

Articles from Vol. 109, No. 5, May

Ancient Teachings, MODERN LESSONS
In recent years, researchers have looked for areas where indigenous knowledge, also called local or traditional knowledge, can meet modern science for better environmental health. A 1999 conference titled "Science for the 21st Century--A New Commitment"...
A Rat Mammary Tumor Model Induced by the Organophosphorous Pesticides Parathion and Malathion, Possibly through Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition
Environmental chemicals may be involved in the etiology of breast cancers. Many studies have addressed the association between cancer in humans and agricultural pesticide exposure. Organophosphorous pesticides have been used extensively to control...
Baby Ills from Beauty Aids?
Last November, pregnant women had a reason to be glad they could no longer reach their toenails. Beauty Secrets, a report published by the Washington, D.C.-based Environmental Working Group (EWG), warned that women of reproductive age should avoid...
Biomarker Correlations of Urinary 2,4-D Levels in Foresters: Genomic Instability and Endocrine Disruption
Forest pesticide applicators constitute a unique pesticide use group. Aerial, mechanical-ground, and focal weed control by application of herbicides, in particular chlorophenoxy herbicides, yield diverse exposure scenarios. In the present work, we...
Boston Pee Party
Millions of coffee drinkers may be providing the ultimate environmental wake-up call. So much caffeine flows into and out of people daily that it could offer the best test yet for water pollution, says a scientist in Boston, Massachusetts, who has...
CDC Unveils Body Burden
On 21 March 2001 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released its pioneering National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, unveiling the first available benchmarks for a few of the thousands of chemicals that the general...
Cellular Telephones and Brain Cancer: Current Research
Two prominent medical journals recently published epidemiologic studies [Inskip et al. (1) and Muscat et al. (2)] on cellular telephones and brain cancer. These papers were featured in a front-page story in The New York Times (3). The message of the...
Coupling between Annual and ENSO Timescales in the Malaria-Climate Association in Colombia
We present evidence that the El Nino phenomenon intensifies the annual cycle of malaria cases for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in endemic areas of Colombia as a consequence of concomitant anomalies in the normal annual cycle of temperature...
Data Quality in Predictive Toxicology: Reproducibility of Rodent Carcinogenicity Experiments
We compared 121 replicate rodent carcinogenicity assays from the two parts (National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program and literature) of the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) to estimate the reliability of these experiments. We estimated...
Development of Zebrafish Mutagenesis and Screening Tools
This program announcement (PA) is intended to encourage investigator-initiated applications for research in using screening in zebrafish to detect and characterize genes, pathways, and phenotypes of interest in development and aging, organ formation,...
Diesel Exhaust Particles Suppress Macrophage Function and Slow the Pulmonary Clearance of Listeria Monocytogenes in Rats
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) may increase susceptibility of the host to pulmonary infection. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received a single dose of DEP (5 mg/kg), carbon black (CB, 5 mg/kg), or...
EC Says Shhh!
Nearly 80 million people--20% of the population of the European Union (EU)--are exposed to noise levels high enough to cause adverse effects including annoyance and sleep disturbance. Another 170 million live in areas where noise can cause "serious...
Evolutionary Biology of Plant Defenses against Herbivory and Their Predictive Implications for Endocrine Disruptor Susceptibility in Vertebrates
Hormone disruption is a major, underappreciated component of the plant chemical arsenal, and the historical coevolution between hormone-disrupting plants and herbivores will have both increased the susceptibility of carnivores and diversified the sensitivities...
Examination of the Melatonin Hypothesis in Women Exposed at Night to EMF or Bright Light
It has been hypothesized that the increased incidence of breast cancer in industrial societies is related to greater exposure to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF) and/or the presence of high levels of light at night (LAN). EMF and...
Formamidopyrimidine-DNA Glycosylase Enhances Arsenic-Induced DNA Strand Breaks in PHA-Stimulated and Unstimulated Human Lymphocytes
To confirm that arsenic (As) induces oxidative DNA damage in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated and unstimulated human lymphocytes, we used the alkaline comet assay combined with specific enzyme [formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FPG)] digestion...
Gold-Mining Activities and Mercury Contamination of Native Amerindian Communities in French Guiana: Key Role of Fish in Dietary Uptake
In 1994, the French National Public Health Network reported significant mercury exposure of native Amerindians in French Guiana. In 1997, a study was conducted in the Wayana community to quantify the dietary intake and to identify the fish species...
Health Oasis in the Desert Southwest
In the desert Southwest, communities are slaking their thirst for knowledge with an outreach program that is overflowing with environmental health information. The Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center (SWEHSC) at the University of Arizona...
Identification of a P2X7 Receptor in [GH.Sub.4][C.Sub.1] Rat Pituitary Cells: A Potential Target for a Bioactive Substance Produced by Pfiesteria Piscicida
We examined the pharmacologic activity of a putative toxin (pPfTx) produced by Pfiesteria piscicida by characterizing the signaling pathways that induce the c-fos luciferase construct in [GH.sub.4][C.sub.1] rat pituitary cells. Adenosine-5'-triphosphate...
Indi-Gene-Ous Conflicts
With nearly two-thirds of the population afflicted, the Nuu-chah-nulth Indians of Vancouver Island in British Columbia have one of the highest rates of arthritis in the world. Often passed down family lines, the genetics of arthritis in this unique...
In Memoriam Professor Cesare Maltoni
(1930-2001) Cesare Maltoni, a world-renowned leader in the research of the hazards of industrial carcinogens in the workplace, died on 22 January 2001 at the age of 70. Maltoni's contributions to research and the causation of cancers dealt with...
Interrelations of Lead Levels in Bone, Venous Blood, and Umbilical Cord Blood with Exogenous Lead Exposure through Maternal Plasma Lead in Peripartum Women
Recent research has raised the possibility that fetal lead exposure is not estimated adequately by measuring lead content in maternal whole blood lead because of the variable partitioning of lead in whole blood between plasma and red blood cells. Lead...
Is Peroxisome Proliferation an Obligatory Precursor Step in the Carcinogenicity of Di(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)?
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), a peroxisome proliferator, has been listed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and by the National Toxicology Program as a possible or reasonably anticipated human carcinogen because it induces...
Legacy of Lead
Babies at Risk Decades after Mothers Exposed Fetal lead exposure is associated with delayed embryonic development of several organ systems and cognitive deficiencies in early childhood. Infants and children are more susceptible to the metal's effects...
Metals in Medicine
The objective of this program announcement (PA) is to encourage research that bridges the areas of inorganic chemistry and medicine. The mechanisms by which organisms control transition metal ions and the roles of these metals in cellular regulation...
New Books
Agricultural Safety Keith E. Barenklau Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, 2001, 160 pp. ISBN: 1-56670-487-1, $89.95 Better Environmental Policy Studies: How to Design and Conduct More Effective Analyses Lawrence Susskind, Ravi K. Jain, Andrew O. Martyniuk Washington,...
Pfiesteria 'Fesses Up
A New Clue to Its Toxicity Like Houdini, the mysterious dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida hasn't been inclined to surrender the secrets of how it works. But with enough creative poking and prodding, something was likely to give, and it has. Researchers...
Possible Estuary-Associated Syndrome: Symptoms, Vision, and Treatment
The human illness designated as possible estuarine-associated syndrome (PEAS) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been associated with exposure to estuaries inhabited by toxin-forming dinoflagellates, including members of the...
Quantifying the Effects of Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Combustion on Acute Respiratory Infections in Developing Countries
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are the leading cause of burden of disease worldwide and have been causally linked with exposure to pollutants from domestic biomass fuels in developing countries. We used longitudinal health data coupled with detailed...
Research on Autism/Autism Spectrum Disorders
The purpose of this program announcement is to encourage grant applications for research to elucidate the diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, genetics, treatment, and optimal means of service delivery in relation to autistic disorder ("autism") and...
Single Molecule Detection and Manipulation
The purpose of this program announcement is to encourage basic research on the detection and manipulation of single molecules. Recent advances in optical imaging and biomechanical techniques have shown that it is possible to make observations on the...
Sound Science
Ferries Keep Watch on Coastal Water Researchers in North Carolina are developing a new approach to understanding the behavior of a critical waterway, the Pamlico Sound. Hans Paerl, Kenan Professor of Marine and Environmental Sciences at the University...
The Impact of Heat Waves and Cold Spells on Mortality Rates in the Dutch Population
We conducted the study described in this paper to investigate the impact of ambient temperature on mortality in the Netherlands during 1979-1997, the impact of heat waves and cold spells on mortality in particular, and the possibility of any heat wave-...
The Price of Gold
Indians at Risk in French Guiana The Wayana Amerindians of French Guiana live along the Maroni River and depend upon its fish as a significant source of food. However, that food source may be threatened by gold mining operations upstream, which...
U.S. EPA Indian Environmental Office
Long before the first Europeans set foot in North America, the continent's indigenous nations were responsible for the health and welfare of their own people. In spite of the eventual expansion of the United States across millions of acres of formerly...
Work Characteristics and Pesticide Exposures among Migrant Agricultural Families: A Community-Based Research Approach
There are few data on pesticide exposures of migrant Latino farmworker children, and access to this vulnerable population is often difficult. In this paper we describe a community-based approach to implement culturally appropriate research methods...