Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental health magazine.

Articles from Vol. 109, No. 9, September

A Less Trashy Nova Scotia. (Recycling)
In Nova Scotia, taking out the trash may now be easier because there's less to take out--in fact, 50% less. The eastern province has become the first in Canada to reduce solid waste disposal by 50% over 1989 levels, a nationwide goal set that year...
Allium Vegetables and Organosulfur Compounds: Do They Help Prevent Cancer? (Reviews)
Allium vegetables have been shown to have beneficial effects against several diseases, including cancer. Garlic, onions, leeks, and chives have been reported to protect against stomach and colorectal cancers, although evidence for a protective effect...
Brominated Flame Retardants: A Novel Class of Developmental Neurotoxicants in Our Environment? (Articles)
Brominated flame retardants are a novel group of global environmental contaminants. Within this group the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) constitute one class of many that are found in electrical appliances, building materials, and textiles....
Calendar
October 1-2 October, Mon-Tue. Spirometry Workshop, Ft. Walton Beach, Florida. Information: Melinda L. Sledge, The Deep South Center for Occupational Health and Safety, UAB, School of Public Health, Birmingham, AL 35294-0022 USA, 205-934-7178, fax:...
Cars and the Environment: Forming Lasting Bonds. (Innovations)
Most anyone would agree that one of the most important aspects of people's love affairs with their automobiles is the color of the vehicle. Whether vibrant red, stately gray, or stealthy black, the color of a car says something about its driver (or...
Combustion Products of 1,3-Butadiene Are Cytotoxic and Genotoxic to Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells. (Articles)
Adverse health effects of airborne toxicants, especially small respirable particles and their associated adsorbed chemicals, are of growing concern to health professionals, governmental agencies, and the general public. Areas rich in petrochemical...
Comments on "Children's Health, Susceptibility, and Regulatory Approaches to Reducing Risk from Chemical Carcinogens." (Correspondence)
In their recent commentary, "Children's Health, Susceptibility, and Regulatory Approaches to Reducing Risk from Chemical Carcinogens," Charnley and Putzrath (1) noted the seminal importance of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report Pesticides...
Determinants of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Methylmercury Exposure in Inuit Women of Childbearing Age. (Articles)
The objectives of this study were to to identify maternal characteristics associated with traditional food consumption and to examine food items associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury body burden in pregnant Inuit women from Northern...
Developmental Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos Modeled in Vitro: Comparative Effects of Metabolites and Other Cholinesterase Inhibitors on DNA Synthesis in PC12 and C6 Cells. (Articles)
The widely used organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos is a suspected neuroteratogen. In the current study, we compared the effects of chlorpyrifos and its major metabolites in two in vitro models, neuronotypic PC12 cells and gliotypic C6 cells. Chlorpyrifos...
Diethylnitrosamine Causes Pituitary Damage, Disturbs Hormone Levels, and Reduces Sexual Dimorphism of Certain Liver Functions in the Rat. (Articles)
The acute toxicity of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) to the liver has been well documented in the literature, but whether DEN also affects the endocrine parameters has been addressed in only a few studies. We thus investigated the effects of DEN on pituitary,...
Don't Breathe and Drive? Pollutants Lurk Inside Vehicles. (Focus)
At times it pays to live in the first lane. Drivers motoring in freeway carpool lanes not only avoid the congestion of traffic in slower neighboring lanes, they may also avoid lung congestion from pollutants that seep into their vehicles as they creep...
Drive Your Car into the Ground. (Materials Science)
If you really want to impress your green friends, what better way than by driving a car that's made partially of grass? The car looks and feels like any other until it's composted in a landfill. Then, over time, microbes snack on remnants of the aging...
Estimating the Extent of the Health Hazard Posed by High-Production Volume Chemicals. (Articles)
We used structure--activity relationship modeling to estimate the number of toxic chemicals among the high-production volume (HPV) group. We selected 200 chemicals from among the HPV chemical list and predicted the potential of each for its ability...
Fellowships, Grants, & Awards
Technologies for Closing DNA Sequence Gaps and Improving Methods for Obtaining the Sequence of Difficult-to-Sequence Regions The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) invites applications to develop strategies and technologies for obtaining...
Firesafe but Not Failsafe: Flame Retardants Cause Neurotoxic Effects. (Science Selections)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), widely used as flame retardants, are emerging contaminants of concern. A 1998 study of Swedish women showed that PBDE concentrations in mothers' milk increased exponentially from 1972 to 1997, doubling every...
Formation of Strong Airway Irritants in Mixtures of Isoprene/ozone and Isoprene/ozone/nitrogen Dioxide. (Articles)
We evaluated the airway irritation of isoprene, isoprene/ozone, and isoprene/ozone/nitrogen dioxide mixtures using a mouse bioassay, from which we calculated sensory irritation, bronchial constriction, and pulmonary irritation. We observed significant...
Gastrointestinal Effects Associated with Soluble and Insoluble Copper in Drinking Water. (Articles)
The aim of this study was to determine whether total copper or soluble copper concentration is associated with gastrointestinal signs and symptoms. Forty-five healthy adult women (18-55 years of age), living in Santiago, Chile, ingested tap water with...
HealthRisk Strategies Response. (Correspondence)
We appreciate the comments of Landrigan et al. and find that few of them are inconsistent with the conclusions presented in our paper (1). Indeed, many of their comments are mentioned in our paper. Nowhere in our paper, however, do we argue that child-protective...
Human Physiologic Factors in Respiratory Uptake of 1,3-Butadiene. (Articles)
1,3-Butadiene (BD), a suspected human carcinogen, is used as the raw material in industries to make synthetic butyl rubber and plastics. Simulation models using experimental animal data have shown that physiologic factors play an important role in...
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis from Ordinary Residential Exposures: University of Rochester School of Medicine and Wayne State University College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions. (Grand Rounds in Environmental Medicine)
A previously healthy woman developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis of such severity that she required chronic systemic corticosteroid therapy for symptom control. Detailed investigation of her workplace and home environments revealed fungi in her typical...
Increased Risk of Malignant Mesothelioma of the Pleura after Residential or Domestic Exposure to Asbestos: A Case-Control Study in Casale Monferrato, Italy. (Articles)
The association of malignant mesothelioma (MM) and nonoccupational asbestos exposure is currently debated. Our study investigates environmental and domestic asbestos exposure in the city where the largest Italian asbestos cement (AC) factory was located....
Large Volumes, Less Risk? HPV Chemicals May Be Safer Than Thought. (Science Selections)
In 1997 the group now known as Environmental Defense (ED) published Toxic Ignorance, a report focused on the dearth of basic toxicologic information on high production volume (HPV) chemicals. These chemicals, which are used in various industries and...
Multiple Metal Contamination from House Paints: Consequences of Power Sanding and Paint Scraping in New Orleans. (Children's Health Article)
Power sanding exterior paint is a common practice during repainting of old houses in New Orleans, Louisiana, that triggers lead poisoning and releases more than Pb. In this study we quantified the Pb, zinc, cadmium, manganese, nickel, copper, cobalt,...
New Books
Agricultural Transformation, Food and Environment: Perspectives on European Rural Policy and Planning, Volume 1 Henry Buller, Keith Hoggart, eds. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2001, 200 pp. ISBN: 0-7546-1736-X, $69.95 Allergy in the 21st...
New Data Back Up Sludge Debate. (Hazardous Waste)
Of the sewage sludge--or postprocessing sewage biosolids--produced annually in the United States, over half is applied to land. Sludges are treated to reduce odors and pathogens and their metal contents are regulated, but content of persistent organic...
New Mouse Genomics Consortium. (NIEH News)
The NIEHS announced on 3 May 2001 that five research centers comprising the Comparative Mouse Genomics Centers Consortium have been selected to develop mouse lines with genetic variations that may be key to understanding the effects of environmental...
NIEHS/NTP-Supported Unique Grants Program. (Extramurally Speaking ...)
The NIEHS Division of Extramural Research and Training (DERT), in collaboration with the National Toxicology Program (NTP), initiated a unique grants program in 1997 that funds investigator-initiated research to provide data to aid in defining the...
Progress in the Application of DNA Microarrays? (Reviews)
Microarray technology has been applied to a variety of different fields to address fundamental research questions. The use of microarrays, or DNA chips, to study the gene expression profiles of biologic samples began in 1995. Since that time, the fundamental...
Retrospective: Science Knows No Country, Because Knowledge Belongs to Humanity, and Is the Torch Which Illuminates the World. (Perspectives)
After almost three decades, 109 volumes, hundreds of thousands of pages, and immeasurable hours of editing and review, EHP is saying goodbye to it's editor-in-chief, Gary Hook. Hook is retiring from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences...
Specific Accumulation and Elimination Kinetics of Tris(4-Chlorophenyl)methane, Tris(4-Chlorophenyl) Methanol, and Other Persistent Organochlorines in Humans from Japan. (Articles)
We examined human adipose tissue, liver, and bile from humans in Japan to understand the contamination status, specific accumulation, and elimination of two newly identified environmental contaminants, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol...
The Consumers Union Guide to Environmental Labels. (Forum)
As U.S. manufacturers and retailers rush to tap into the multibillion-dollar-per-year "green merchandise" market, labels on items ranging from eggs to diapers tout an ever-expanding number of qualifiers such as nontoxic, all natural, and organic to...
The Genetics Behind Drug Breakdown. (Pharmaceuticals)
Individuals with a common genetic variation may not metabolize certain drugs as readily as those without the mutation, researchers report in the April 2001 Nature Genetics. As a result, they may be particularly sensitive to these medications. This...
The Low Down on Low-Dose Endocrine Disruptors. (NIEH News)
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are among the most complex environmental health threats known today. By mimicking natural hormones such as estrogen and testosterone, these chemicals can interact with the body's endocrine system and exert toxic effects...
The Precautionary Principle in Environmental Science. (Commentaries)
Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, proposed as a new guideline in environmental decision...
The Risk Linked to Ionizing Radiation: An Alternative Epidemiologic Approach. (Commentaries)
Radioprotection norms have been based on risk models that have evolved over time. These models show relationships between exposure and observed effects. There is a high level of uncertainty regarding lower doses. Recommendations have been based on...
This Old House: Comparative Hazards of Paint Removal Techniques. (Science Selections)
Maintenance of old homes can be an extremely hazardous activity if improperly done. For example, lead poisoning can arise from exposure to lead-based paint chips as well as dust produced during prep work for repainting. In this issue, researchers led...