Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental health magazine.

Articles from Vol. 108, No. 10, October

Acute Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Containing and -Free Transformer Fluids on Rat Testicular Steroidogenesis
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-based transformer fluids belong to a class of environmentally persistent mixtures with known toxic effects. Here, we studied the acute effects of Askarel (which contains Aroclor 1260) and two substitute transformer fluids...
A New View of ELF-EMFs
Are They Linked with Cancer Promotion? The debate over a possible link between cancer and extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) began with a 1979 study that found excess cancer in people who lived near large electrical wires....
Antitumor Effects of THC
1-Trans-[delta.sup.9]-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main active component of marijuana, has been shown to exhibit anticancer activity (1,2). Galve-Roperh et al. (1) reported that intratumoral administration of THC induces apoptosis of transformed...
Association of Fine Particulate Matter from Different Sources with Daily Mortality in Six U.S. Cities
Previously we reported that fine particle mass (particulate matter [is less than or equal to] 2.5 [micro]m; [PM.sub.2.5]), which is primarily from combustion sources, but not coarse particle mass, which is primarily from crustal sources, was associated...
Associations of Blood Lead, Dimercaptosuccinic Acid-Chelatable Lead, and Tibia Lead with Polymorphisms in the Vitamin D Receptor and [Delta]-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Genes
A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in the [Delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes on blood lead, tibia lead, and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-chelatable lead...
Breaching the Placenta
Fast Fetal Absorption of a Common Compound Most maternally administered chemicals have the potential to cross the placental barrier, and the question is not whether a chemical crosses the placenta, but the rate at which it does so. In this issue,...
Controversy Swirls around Toilet-to-Tap Project
California officials are receiving a tidal wave of reactions to a proposition to reclaim wastewater for drinking purposes. Although officials insist their "toilet-to-tap" program is a safe solution to California's water shortage problem, several opponents...
Disposition of Orally Administered 2,2-Bis(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propane (Bisphenol A) in Pregnant Rats and the Placental Transfer to Fetuses
We studied the disposition of bisphenol A (BPA) in pregnant female F344/DuCrj(Fischer) rats and its placental transfer to fetuses after a single oral administration of 1 g/kg BPA dissolved in propylene glycol. BPA in maternal blood, liver, and kidney...
Drugged Drinking Water
Drugs and personal care products that are excreted from or washed off the body naturally end up in the sewage that flows into sewer systems and septic tanks, but where do they go from there? Scientists are beginning to monitor the extent of pharmaceutical...
Early Warning Systems for Hazardous Biological Agents in Potable Water
Background There is a growing concern with the potential for terrorist use of biological weapons (bioweapons) to cause civilian harm (1-5) This concern has been focused around two assumptions: that a terrorist is most likely to effectively disperse...
Effect of Electromagnetic Field Exposure on Chemically Induced Differentiation of Friend Erythroleukemia Cells
Whether exposure of humans to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can cause cancer is controversial and therefore needs further research. We used a Friend erythroleukemia cell line that can be chemically induced to differentiate...
Environmentally Relevant Xenoestrogen Tissue Concentrations Correlated to Biological Responses in Mice
The effects of xenoestrogens have been extensively studied in rodents, generally under single, high-dose conditions. Using a continuous-release, low-dose system in ovariectomized mice, we correlated the estrogenic end points of uterine epithelial height...
Environmental Threats to the Health of Children: The Asian Perspective
In Asia, as in the rest of the world, there are serious and significant effects on the health of children arising from environmental contamination. On 9-11 April 2000, the first biannual meeting on Environmental Threats to the Health of Children in...
Evaluation and Use of Epidemiological Evidence for Environmental Health Risk Assessment: WHO Guideline Document
Environmental health risk assessment is increasingly being used in the development of environmental health policies, public health decision making, the establishment of environmental regulations, and research planning. The credibility of risk assessment...
Exposure to Phthalate Esters
The American Chemistry Council Phthalate Esters Panel read with great interest the paper by Blount et al. (1) regarding urinary levels of phthalate ester metabolites in a sample set of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES...
Extramurally Speaking
The NIEHS is pleased to announce that Richard E. Peterson, a professor of pharmaceutical sciences in the School of Pharmacy at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, has received an award under the Method to Extend Research in Time (MERIT) Award Program....
Fellowships, Grants, & Awards
Role of Hormones and Growth Factors in Prostate Cancer This initiative will explore the mechanisms of action of hormones and growth factors in the regulation of prostate development, growth, and tumorigenesis, focusing on studies of hormone and...
Government Laboratory Worker with Lung Cancer: Comparing Risks from Beryllium, Asbestos, and Tobacco Smoke
Occupational medicine physicians are frequently asked to establish cancer causation in patients with both workplace and non-workplace exposures. This is especially difficult in cases involving beryllium for which the data on human carcinogenicity are...
Human Cell Exposure Assays of Bacillus Thuringiensis Commercial Insecticides: Production of Bacillus Cereus-Like Cytolytic Effects from Outgrowth of Spores
Most contemporary bioinsecticides are derived from scaled-up cultures of Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis (Bti) and kurstaki (Btk), whose particulate fractions contain mostly B. thuringiensis spores ([is greater than] [10.sup.12]/L) and...
Human Exposure Estimates for Phthalates
Phthalates are important industrial chemicals used in a variety of applications. These chemicals can be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin, resulting in human exposure and raising significant public health concerns. Blount et al. (1)...
Lead Loading of Urban Streets by Motor Vehicle Wheel Weights
This study documents that lead weights, which are used to balance motor vehicle wheels, are lost and deposited in urban streets, that they accumulate along the outer curb, and that they are rapidly abraded and ground into tiny pieces by vehicle traffic....
Levels of Seven Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in a Human Reference Population
Using a novel and highly selective technique, we measured monoester metabolites of seven commonly used phthalates in urine samples from a reference population of 289 adult humans. This analytical approach allowed us to directly measure the individual...
Long-Term Health Effects of Particulate and Other Ambient Air Pollution: Research Can Progress Faster If We Want It To
There is need for the assessment of long-term effects of outdoor air pollution. In fact, a considerable part of the large amount of U.S. research money that has been dedicated to investigate effects of ambient particulate pollution should be invested...
Minimizing Mercury in Medicine
The American Medical Association (AMA) has adopted a policy urging hospital administrators to eliminate mercury-containing devices such as blood pressure monitors from their facilities. "Elemental mercury and mercury compounds are known to be hazardous...
New Books
Agro-Ecological Farming Systems in China Wen-Hua Li, ed. New York: The Parthenon Publishing Group, 2000, 500 pp. ISBN: 1-85070-631-X, $105 Air Pollution and Health Stephen T. Holgate, Jonathan M. Samet, Robert L. Maynard, Hillel S. Koren, eds. San Diego,...
On a Different Scale
Putting China's Environmental Crisis in Perspective Need a puzzle to ponder? Consider the future of the People's Republic of China. China's astounding industrial growth over the past two decades has created a nation that could become one of the...
Prediction and Assessment of the Effects of Mixtures of Four Xenoestrogens
The assessment of mixture effects of estrogenic agents is regarded as an issue of high priority by many governmental agencies and expert decision-making bodies all over the world. However, the few mixture studies published so far have suffered from...
Psychic Networks
Training Computers to Predict Algal Blooms Australia's Darling River looked as though it had been painted green. A thick scum of cyanobacteria--blue-green algae--covered it from shore to shore for more than a thousand kilometers. Livestock tried...
Reaching out to New York Neighborhoods
As a means of accomplishing its mission of studying how environmental agents affect human health, the NIEHS sponsors a program of center core grants designed to support centralized resources and facilities shared by investigators with existing research...
Responsible Care Goes Online
As environmental, health, and safety progress reports become standard for corporations, trade associations are demonstrating their members' progress in unique ways. For the year 2000, the American Chemistry Council (ACC; formerly the Chemical Manufacturers...
The Beat
Linking Lead to Alzheimer Disease Scientists from Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals presented evidence at the April 2000 annual meeting of the American Academy of Neurology that people who have held jobs with high levels of...
The General Accounting Office
The General Accounting Office (GAO) is an independent federal agency working to improve federal government accountability by alerting policy makers and the public to emerging problems throughout the government. The GAO gathers information to help Congress...
The General Accounting Office: JUST THE FACTS
Every day in Washington, D.C., federal agencies hunker down in the trenches and barter for access to taxpayer dollars. Figuring out which agency programs deserve these scarce resources is in many ways the government's chief responsibility. It's a tough...
The "New" Genetics and Mammalian Cloning in Environmental Health Research
Recent advances in genetic technology have spurred a mini-revolution in the study of toxicology. Toxicologic studies are a national imperative, and the importance of the application of transgenic mice and knock-out technologies to these studies is...
The Question of Declining Sperm Density Revisited: An Analysis of 101 Studies Published 1934-1996
In 1992 Carlsen et al. reported a significant global decline in sperm density between 1938 and 1990 [Evidence for Decreasing Quality of Semen during Last 50 Years. Br Med J 305:609-613 (1992)]. We subsequently published a reanalysis of the studies...
Vulnerability to Lead
Absorption Varies with Genotype Generic factors may modify the toxicokinetics of lead in humans--that is, how lead is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted. Attention has centered on the enzyme [Delta]-aminolevulinic dehydratase (ALAD),...