Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental health magazine.

Articles from Vol. 111, No. 3, March

Acid Drainage Technology Initiative Metal Mining Sector. (Ehpnet)
The Acid Drainage Technology Initiative (ADTI) was begun in 1995 by the National Mining Association, the Interstate Mining Compact Commission, and federal agencies including the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...
A [Delta]-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALAD) Polymorphism May Modify the Relationship of Low-Level Lead Exposure to Uricemia and Renal Function: The Normative Aging Study. (Environmental Medicine)
In this study we investigated whether a known [delta]-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) exon 4 polymorphism has a modifying effect on the association of blood or bone lead level with uricemia and indices of renal function among middle-aged and...
A Geographic Information System for Characterizing Exposure to Agent Orange and Other Herbicides in Vietnam. (Research)
Between 1961 and 1971, U.S. military forces dispersed more than 19 million gallons of phenoxy and other herbicidal agents in the Republic of Vietnam, including more than 12 million gallons of dioxin-contaminated Agent Orange, yet only comparatively...
Aluminum Floc Formation. (Metal Toxicity)
When aluminum-rich acidic runoff from mining sites travels through less acidic stream or river water, fluffy flocs of suspended solids form. These flocs carry toxic metals--which normally would have stayed in the streambed--downstream from the mine...
Appreciation for "Remembering Alice Stewart". (Correspondence)
EHP deserves appreciation for publishing "Remembering Alice Stewart" (Mead 2002). However, I would like to address a few inaccuracies and important omissions about this scientist's contributions that warrant comment. The Oxford Survey of Childhood...
Association of Lung Function with Declining Ambient Air Pollution. (Children's Health)
Recent studies have found a declining prevalence of respiratory infections in East German children, along with a tremendous improvement of air pollution since 1990. The present study evaluates the effects of improved air quality on lung function. Three...
Azole Fungicides Affect Mammalian Steroidogenesis by Inhibiting Sterol 14[alpha]-Demethylase and Aromatase. (Research)
Azole compounds play a key role as antifungals in agriculture and in human mycoses and as nonsteroidal antiestrogens in the treatment of estrogen-responsive breast tumors in postmenopausal women. This broad use of azoles is based on their inhibition...
Biotransformations of Bisphenol A in a Mammalian Model: Answers and New Questions Raised by Low-Dose Metabolic Fate Studies in Pregnant CD1 Mice. (Research)
We investigated the metabolic fate of a low dose (25 [micro]g/kg) of bisphenol A [2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane] (BPA) injected subcutaneously in CD1 pregnant mice using a tritium-labeled molecule. Analytic methods were developed to allow a radio-chromatographic...
Calendar. (Announcements)
2003 April 5-8 April, Sat-Tue. Second International Conference on New Biomedical Materials. Cardiff, Wales, UK. Information: Dr P.I. Haris, School of Molecular Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LEI 9BH, United Kingdom,...
Cancer and Three Mile Island: No Significant Increase in Five-Mile Radius. (Science Selections)
The 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant was the all-time worst at any commercial nuclear power plant in the United States. Small quantities of xenon and iodine isotopes were released during the accident and shortly afterward....
Defense Cleanup: A Quick and Dirty Review. (Hazardous Waste)
Over 9,000 formerly used defense sites, or FUDS, dot the landscape of the United States and its territories. These sites include storage depots, military bases, radar stations, and missile sites. Although the sites have been retired, the hazards contained...
Developmental Neurotoxicity Elicited by Prenatal or Postnatal Chlorpyrifos Exposure: Effects on Neurospecific Proteins Indicate Changing Vulnerabilities. (Research)
The developmental neurotoxicity of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) is thought to involve both neurons and glia, thus producing a prolonged window of vulnerability. To characterize the cell types and brain regions involved in these...
Development and Application of a Robust Speciation Method for Determination of Six Arsenic Compounds Present in Human Urine. (Research)
Six arsenic species [arsenate, arsenite, arsenocholine, arsenobetaine, monomethyl arsonic acid, and dimethyl arsinic acid] present in human urine were determined using ion-exchange chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...
Effects of PCB Exposure on Neuropsychological Function in Children. (Children's Health)
In the last decade advances in the analytic methods for quantification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have resulted in widespread availability of congener-specific analysis procedures, and large amounts of data on PCB congener profiles in soil,...
Estimated Costs of Environmental Disease: Response to Rigas. (Correspondence)
We thank Rigas for his thoughtful comments. We would be the first to agree with him that more research is needed to better define etiologic associations between pediatric disease and toxic chemicals and to further refine estimates of the costs of diseases...
Estimating Costs of Environmental Disease. (Correspondence)
Due to effective control programs in the industrialized world, childhood mortality from infectious diseases has decreased dramatically over the past 140 years (DiLiberti and Jackson 1999). In recent years, increased attention has focused on chronic...
Estrogenic Activity of Styrene Oligomers after Metabolic Activation by Rat Liver Microsomes. (Research)
In this study we examined estrogenic activity of styrene oligomers after metabolic activation by rat liver microsomes, trans-1,2-Diphenylcyclobutane (TCB), cis-1,2-diphenylcyclobutane (CCB), 1,3-diphenylpropane, 2,4-diphenyl-1-butene, 2,4,6-triphenyl-1-hexene,...
Fellowships, Grants, & Awards. (Announcements)
Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research A federal executive order of 21 April 1997, "Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks," charges agencies to consider special environmental...
Fenitrothion: Toxicokinetics and Toxicologic Evaluation in Human Volunteers. (Research)
An unblinded crossover study of fenitrothion 0.18 mg/kg/day [36 times the acceptable daily intake (ADI)] and 0.36 mg/kg/day (72 x ADI) administered as two daily divided doses for 4 days in 12 human volunteers was designed and undertaken after results...
From the Lab to the Land. (NIEHS News)
A major challenge in environmental health research is the question of technology transfer, or how to turn basic research findings into useful technology that deals with the critical issues confronting the world's public and environmental health. The...
Heme Deficiency Effects Offer Clue to Alzheimer Disease. (Aging)
Atamna H, Killilea DW, Killilea AN, Ames BN. 2002. Heme deficiency may be a factor in the mitochondrial and neuronal decay of aging. Proc Nad Acad Sci U S A. 99(23):14807-14812. Normal aging of the brain and the neurodegeneration caused by Alzheimer...
Histopathologic and Histochemical Biomarker Responses of Baltic Clam, Macoma Balthica, to Contaminated Sydney Harbour Sediment, Nova Scotia, Canada. (Research)
Sediments in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia, are highly contaminated by polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and heavy metals. Histopathologic and histochemical evaluations were made on the Baltic clam, Macoma balthica,...
Importance of the Great Lakes. (Correspondence)
The article by Knap et al., "Indicators of Ocean Health and Human Health: Developing a Research and Monitoring Framework" (Knap et al. 2002), was a welcome overview of issues that link the environmental condition of marine/ocean ecosystems and human...
Long-Term Follow-Up of the Residents of the Three Mile Island Accident Area: 1979-1998. (Environmental Medicine)
The Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant accident (1979) prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Health to initiate a cohort mortality study in the TMI accident area. This study is significant because of the long follow-up (1979-1998), large...
Low Birth Weight Linked to Asthma. (Children's Health)
Health experts know that asthma occurs more often in black children than in children of other races, but cannot fully explain why. In searching for clues, they have implicated environmental and socioeconomic factors such as exposure to cockroach allergens,...
Methemoglobinemia Risk Factors: Response to Avery and L'hirondel. (Correspondence)
Doing and discovery are always harder than critique. Should one have the opportunity, or misfortune, of merely reviewing the fieldwork of others, one would have the luxury of never being criticized. Real world, field epidemiology does not provide that...
New Books. (Announcements)
Application of a Regional Water Quality Effort to Meet National Water Priorities: The Mississippi Delta Management Systems Evaluation Area Mary Nett, Martin Locke, Dean Pennington, eds. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society, 2003, 416 pp....
Nitrate and Methemoglobinemia. (Correspondence)
After they had collected extensive particulars in the Transylvania Region of Romania for an epidemiologic cohort study exploring a hypothetical relationship between high nitrate infant exposure and later neuropsychologic development, Zeman et al. (2002)...
Not-So-Superfund Growing Needs vs. Declining Dollars. (Spheres of Influence)
Remember Love Canal? This 16-acre landfill in Niagara Falls, New York, was contaminated with more than 21 tons of industrial pollutants dumped there by the Hooker Chemical Company, and later surrounded by residential housing and an elementary school....
Nuclear Waste Transportation: Case Studies of Identifying Stakeholder Risk Information Needs. (Research)
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the cleanup of our nation's nuclear legacy, involving complex decisions about how and where to dispose of nuclear waste and how to transport it to its ultimate disposal site. It is widely recognized...
On the Trail of Agent Orange: Measuring Risk with GIS. (Science Selections)
As with many environmental health questions, uncovering the true health effects of the herbicides used in the Vietnam War has been limited by problems with assessing exposure. In this issue, Jeanne Mager Stellman of Columbia University's Mailman School...
Organic Food for Thought: Lessening Children's Pesticide Exposure. (Science Selections)
Parents concerned about the risk to their children's health posed by eating foods sprayed with organophosphorus (OP) pesticides may want to take note: Cynthia Curl and her colleagues at the University of Washington compared the OP pesticide metabolite...
Organochlorines in Swedish Women: Determinants of Serum Concentrations. (Environmental Medicine)
We studied associations between lifestyle/medical factors and lipid-adjusted serum concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and five chlorinated pesticides/metabolites among 205 Swedish women (54-75 years old). Serum concentrations...
Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure of Urban and Suburban Preschool Children with Organic and Conventional Diets. (Children's Health)
We assessed organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposure from diet by biological monitoring among Seattle, Washington, preschool children. Parents kept food diaries for 3 days before urine collection, and they distinguished organic and conventional foods...
PCBs' Legacy: Fewer Boys. (Endocrine Disruptions)
The world's worst polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination incident plagues male victims two decades later in their weakened ability to father boys. In 1979, 2,000 people in Yu-Cheng, Taiwan, were exposed to PCBs from contaminated cooking oil....
Power-Line Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Do Not Induce Changes in Phosphorylation, Localization, or Expression of the 27-Kilodalton Heat Shock Protein in Human Keratinocytes. (Research)
The linkage of the exposure to the power-line frequency (50-60 Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) with human cancers remains controversial after more than 10 years of study. The in vitro studies on the adverse effects of EMF on human cells have not yielded...
Superfund Basic Research Program: A Model for Contemporary Research Programs. (Guest Editorial)
Classification of a site as a federal Superfund site triggers a series of onerous legal, technical, and financial obligations for the potential responsible parties. Basic questions such as how dangerous the site is, how clean it has to be made, and...
The Earth's Open Wounds: Abandoned and Orphaned Mines. (Focus)
Some former mine sites are scars on the land: shafts and tunnels may or may not be boarded closed, and piles of waste rock dot the landscape. Other former sites appear harmless. Perhaps the slurry of ground rock "tailings" and water that once was waste...
The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy: A Case Study and Lessons Learned
Robert F. Phalen Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002. 144 pp. ISBN: 1-4020-7225-2, $70.00 cloth. One of the more controversial issues in the field of air pollution concerns public health implications from inhaled ambient particulate...
Threshold of Trichloroethylene Contamination in Maternal Drinking Waters Affecting Fetal Heart Development in the Rat. (Research)
Halogenated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethylene (TCE) are among the most common water supply contaminants in the United States and abroad. Epidemiologic studies have found an association but not a cause-and-effect relation between halogenated hydrocarbon...
Thyroid Hormone and Brain Development Conference. (NIEHS Extramural Update)
Recently, the NIEHS/NIH/DHHS jointly cosponsored a conference titled "Thyroid Hormone and Brain Development: Translating Molecular Mechanisms to Population Risk" with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the NIH Office of Rare Diseases, the Agency...