Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental health magazine.

Articles from Vol. 112, No. 11, August

Age-Related Differences in Susceptibility to Carcinogenesis: A Quantitative Analysis of Empirical Animal Bioassay Data
In revising cancer risk assessment guidelines, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analyzed animal cancer bioassay data over different periods of life. In this article, we report an improved analysis of these data (supplemented with some...
An Air That Kills: How the Asbestos Poisoning of Libby, Montana, Uncovered a National Scandal
An Air that Kills: How the Asbestos Poisoning of Libby, Montana, Uncovered a National Scandal By Andrew Schneider and David McCumber New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 2004. 440 pp. ISBN: 0-399-15095-1, $25.95 cloth. Asbestos has tragically affected...
Asia's Two-Stroke Engine Dilemma
Asian cities face a serious air pollution problem from two- and three-wheeled vehicles that run on two-stroke engines. Global experts shared their knowledge about these vehicles at an international conference held 30 March-1 April 2004 at the Centre...
Behavioral Alterations in Response to Fear-Provoking Stimuli and Tranylcypromine Induced by Perinatal Exposure to Bisphenol A and Nonylphenol in Male Rats
The purpose of this study was to examine whether perinatal exposure to two major environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA; 0.1 mg/kg/day orally) and nonylphenol [NP; 0.1 mg/kg/day (low dose) and 10 mg/kg/day (high dose) orally]...
Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network (CISNET)
The Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) invites applications from domestic and foreign applicants to support collaborative research using simulation and other modeling techniques to describe...
Determinants of Bone and Blood Lead Levels among Minorities Living in the Boston Area
We measured blood and bone lead levels among minority individuals who live in some of Boston's neighborhoods with high minority representation. Compared with samples of predominantly white subjects we had studied before, the 84 volunteers in this study...
Drinking Water Contaminants, Gene Polymorphisms, and Fetal Growth
There are still many uncertainties regarding the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products. In Montreal, Quebec, Canada, we carried out a hospital-based case-control study including 493 cases...
EU Ramps Up Road Improvements
Noise costs the European Union (EU) 10-40 billion annually, by various estimates, with roughly half of this due to road noise. Contributing factors include medical costs, reduced worker productivity, and de facto condemnation of noise-exposed land....
European Pollutant Emission Register
Pollutant release and transfer inventories are a relatively new database-driven means of providing information on the who, what, and how much of industrial emissions. Though governments have for some time collected such data for their own use, it has...
Fetal Exposure to PCBs and Their Hydroxylated Metabolites in a Dutch Cohort
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are still the most abundant pollutants in wildlife and humans. Hydroxylated PCB metabolites (OH-PCBs) are known to be formed in humans and wildlife. Studies in animals show that these metabolites cause endocrine-related...
Fighting Obesity through the Built Environment
Although it's easy to point the finger at everyone from Ronald McDonald to Bill Gates, no one entity or factor is specifically to blame for the nation's raging obesity epidemic, according to speakers at the first-ever national conference on obesity...
Formula for a New Foam
By 2010, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) will be banned globally because of their adverse impact on the planet's protective ozone layer. One industrial activity that has been significantly impacted by this ban is the manufacture of plastic foams--lightweight...
Hair Mercury Levels in U.S. Children and Women of Childbearing Age: Reference Range Data from NHANES 1999-2000
Exposure to methyl mercury, a risk factor for neurodevelopmental toxicity, was assessed in U.S. children 1-5 years of age (n = 838) and women 16-49 years of age (n = 1,726) using hair mercury analysis during the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition...
Hepatitis B Virus Mutation Predicts Liver Cancer
Kuang SY, Jackson PE, Wang JB, Lu PX, Munoz A, Qian GS, Kensler TW, Groopman JD. 2004. Specific mutations of hepatitis B virus in plasma predict liver cancer development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:3575-3580. Liver cancer is the fifth most prevalent...
Impacts of Our Built Environment on Public Health
We spend more than 90% of our lives indoors (National Research Council 1981), yet we know much more about ambient environmental factors and health than we do about the "built environment" and health. Conceptually, the built environment includes all...
Increased Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Liver Cirrhosis in Vinyl Chloride Workers: Synergistic Effect of Occupational Exposure with Alcohol Intake
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver cirrhosis (LC) are not well-established vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)-induced diseases. Our aim was to appraise the role of VCM, alcohol intake, and viral hepatitis infection, and their interactions, in the etiology...
Keeping Migrant Families Safe
For the thousands of migrant farmworkers who come to the United States in search of jobs, this country may seem like the land of opportunity. For their children, however, it also offers the opportunity for serious injury or even death from exposure...
Lead, Diabetes, Hypertension, and Renal Function: The Normative Aging Study
In this prospective study, we examined changes in renal function during 6 years of follow-up in relation to baseline lead levels, diabetes, and hypertension among 448 middle-age and elderly men, a subsample of the Normative Aging Study. Lead levels...
Measuring Lead Effects: Blood and Bone Together Are Better
Many studies have reported impaired renal function and kidney disease at high levels of lead exposure, as estimated mainly through concentrations of serum creatinine (SCr) and rates of creatinine clearance from the body. However, lower-level lead exposure...
Mother's Thyroid, Baby's Health
Since the 1970s, epidemiologic studies have linked maternal thyroid insufficiency during gestation with fetal brain malformation, fetal death, and miscarriage. The fetus is wholly dependent on the maternal thyroid during the first 10-20 weeks of gestation....
New Books
Academic Health Centers: Leading Change in the 21st Century Linda T. Kohn, ed. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004. 216 pp. ISBN: 0-309-08893-3, $39 Bioethics in Complexity: Foundations and Evolutions Sergio De Risio, Franco F. Orsucci,...
NIEHS Dual-Degree Predoctoral Fellowships for Training Clinician-Scientists
Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards issued under the Dual-Degree Predoctoral Fellowships for Training Clinician-Scientists program provide training for clinical scientists. First announced by the NIEHS in 1999, the program was reissued...
Olden Times: Looking Back on a Career at the NIEHS
After 13 years of distinguished service as director of the NIEHS and the National Toxicology Program (NTP), Kenneth Olden is stepping down to return to the laboratory to continue his work on cancer biology. His tenure at the NIEHS has been marked by...
Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Related Perfluorinated Compounds in Human Maternal and Cord Blood Samples: Assessment of PFOS Exposure in a Susceptible Population during Pregnancy
Fluorinated organic compounds (FOCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonylamide (PFOSA), are widely used in the manufacture of plastic, electronics, textile, and construction material in...
Pesticide Spraying for West Nile Virus Control and Emergency Department Asthma Visits in New York City, 2000
Pyrethroid pesticides were applied via ground spraying to residential neighborhoods in New York City during July-September 2000 to control mosquito vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). Case reports link pyrethroid exposure to asthma exacerbations, but...
Risky Trade-Offs: Bangladeshi Quest for Safe Water
In an attempt to eliminate epidemic levels of diarrhea and other infectious diseases associated with the use of surface waters, millions of shallow tube wells were drilled into the Ganges Delta alluvium in Bangladesh beginning in the early 1970s. This...
Sprawl: The New Manifest Destiny?
Seen from 400 miles above the Earth, the greater Washington, D.C.--Baltimore area is an aggressive consumer of farmland and open spaces. Computer-enhanced satellite images of the area show paved surfaces as crimson tentacles, pushing steadily out from...
Spraying on a Summer Night: A Safer Way to Stop West Nile Virus
A population-level study has shown that night-time pesticide spraying in the late summer and early fall, aimed at controlling adult mosquitoes that carry West Nile virus, can be done in a way that does not drive up the number of people seeking emergency...
Studying Human Fertility
We very much welcome the National Children's Study, which promises to raise the study of factors affecting reproduction and development to a new level. An impressive and exciting range of new methodologies is being developed (Chapin and Buck 2004;...
Studying Human Fertility and Environmental Exposures
In their review of approaches to studying the influence of environmental exposures on human fecundity, Tingen et al. (2004) compared several ways of assessing fecundity. Fecundity--the probability of pregnancy in couples having regular intercourse...
Studying Human Fertility: Response to Slama et Al. and Joffe et Al
Slama et al. provide valuable comments on sampling frames to study fecundity, and we agree that the sampling frame is a major methodologic problem in fecundity studies of all designs. The current duration strategy of enrolling couples currently attempting...
Surf's Yuck
To get the real skinny on the health effects of coastal water pollution, talk to a surfer. While catching the waves, surfers are also catching colds, stomach bugs, and more. Surfers long ago made the connection between sick days and urban storm drains...
The Association between Environmental Lead Exposure and Bone Density in Children
Osteoporosis is a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) that predisposes individuals to fractures. Although an elderly affliction, a predisposition may develop during adolescence if a sufficient peak BMD is not achieved. Rat studies have found that...
The Effect of Arsenic Mitigation Interventions on Disease Burden in Bangladesh
Many interventions have been advocated to mitigate the impact of arsenic contamination of drinking water in Bangladesh. However, there are few data on the true magnitude of arsenic-related disease in Bangladesh nationally. There has also been little...
The Need to Decide If All Estrogens Are Intrinsically Similar
We used gene expression profiling m investigate whether the molecular effects induced by estrogens of different provenance are intrinsically similar. In this article we show that the physiologic estrogen 17[beta]-estradiol, the phytoestrogen genistein,...
The Relationship between Levels of PCBs and Pesticides in Human Hair and Blood: Preliminary Results
Human hair as a biologic measure of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has some advantages over the more commonly used blood and adipose tissue samples. However, one of the primary limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between...
The WTC Disaster and Asbestos Regulations
Landrigan et al. (2004) reported on exposure to asbestos as a result of events involving the World Trade Center (WTC). Their results are somewhat lower than that reported by others (Lange 2004) for this unfortunate event. I reported a single asbestos...
The WTC Disaster: Landrigan's Response
My colleagues and I thank Lange for his letter confirming our finding that asbestos was present in settled dust as well as in airborne samples obtained at Ground Zero, the site of the World Trade Center, and for his having agreed with us that this...
Trichloroethylene and Cardiac Malformations
In a report of cardiac malformations in rats exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) in drinking water, Johnson et al. (2003) used two (1.5 and 1,100 ppm) of the four treatment concentrations that they reported in a previous study (Dawson et al. 1993)....
Trichloroethylene: Johnson et Al.'s Response
We share Hardin et al.'s belief that any apparent conflict of interest should be reported. We note that Brent provided testimony for the defense in TCE litigation, notably for the same case in which Goldberg (based on his extensive epidemiologic and...
Using Human Disease Outbreaks as a Guide to Multilevel Ecosystem Interventions
Human health often depends on environmental variables and is generally subject to widespread and comprehensive surveillance. Compared with other available measures of ecosystem health, human disease incidence may be one of the most useful and practical...
Vehicular Manslaughter: The Global Epidemic of Traffic Deaths
Even though traffic-related death rates in the United States and other high-income countries have been declining steadily for several decades, death tolls on the roadways of the world s poorer countries have been skyrocketing. The number of motorized...