Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental health magazine.

Articles from Vol. 119, No. 12, December

A Mechanistic Modeling Framework for Predicting Metabolic Interactions in Complex Mixtures
BACKGROUND: Computational modeling of the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of chemicals is now theoretically able to describe metabolic interactions in realistic mixtures of tens to hundreds of substances. That framework awaits validation....
A Mutant Ahr Allele Protects the Embryonic Kidney from Hydrocarbon-Induced Deficits in Fetal Programming
BACKGROUND: The use of experimental model systems has expedited the elucidation of pathogenetic mechanisms of renal developmental disease in humans and the identification of genes that orchestrate developmental programming during nephrogenesis. ...
Application of Computational Systems Biology to Explore Environmental Toxicity Hazards
BACKGROUND: Computer-based modeling is part of a new approach to predictive toxicology. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the usefulness 01 an integrated computational systems biology approach in a case study involving the isomers and metabolites of the...
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Deficiency Enhances Insulin Sensitivity and Reduces PPAR-[Alpha] Pathway Activity in Mice
BACKGROUND: Numerous man-made pollutants activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and are risk factors for type 2 diabetes. AhR signaling also affects molecular clock genes to influence glucose metabolism. OBJECTIVE: We investigated mechanisms...
A Signal-to-Noise Crossover Dose as the Point of Departure for Health Risk Assessment
BACKGROUND: The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) cancer bioassay database provides an opportunity to compare both existing and new approaches to determining points of departure ([(PoD).sub.s]) for establishing reference doses ([(RfD).sub.s])....
Biomarkers of Methylmercury Exposure Immunotoxicity among Fish Consumers in Amazonian Brazil
BACKGROUND: Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant with neurodevelopmental and immune system effects. An informative biomarker of Hg-induced immunotoxicity could aid studies on the potential contribution to immune-related health effects....
Bisphenol a Exposure Is Associated with in Vivo Estrogenic Gene Expression in Adults
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic estrogen commonly used in polycarbonate plastic and resin-lined food and beverage containers. Exposure of animal and cell models to doses of BPA below the recommended tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 50ug/kg/day...
Black Carbon as an Additional Indicator of the Adverse Health Effects of Airborne Particles Compared with PM10 and PM2.5
BACKGROUND: Current air quality standards for particulate matter (PM) use the PM mass concentration [PM with aerodynamic diameters < 10 [micro] m [(PM.sub.10]) or < 2.5 um [(PM.sub.2.5])] as a metric. It has been suggested that particles from...
Blood Cadmium and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Korean Adults
BACKGROUND: Cadmium is a nephrotoxicant at high exposure levels. Few studies have evaluated the role of cadmium in kidney function at low-exposure levels. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of blood cadmium with estimated glomerular filtration...
Chemical Safety Studies: Conrad and Becker Respond
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp. 1104385R Sutton et al. and Tweedale both criticize our review (Conrad and Becker 2011) because we did not include industry funding of a study in our proposed set of criteria. Fundamentally, we rejected "industry funding"...
Climate Change, Crop Yields, and Undernutrition: Development of a Model to Quantify the Impact of Climate Scenarios on Child Undernutrition
BACKGROUND: Global climate change is anticipated to reduce future cereal yields and threaten food security, thus potentially increasing the risk of undernutrition. The causation of undernutrition is complex, and there is a need to develop models that...
Comprehensive Assessment of Maize Aflatoxin Levels in Eastern Kenya, 2005-2007
BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin, a potent fungal toxin, contaminates 25% of crops worldwide. Since 2004, 477 aflatoxin poisonings associated with eating contaminated maize have been documented in Eastern Kenya, with a case-fatality rate of 40%. OBJECTIVE:...
Conrad and Becker's "10 Criteria" Fall Short of Addressing Conflicts of Interest in Chemical Safety Studies
http.//dx.Doi.org/10. 1289/ebp. 1104385 In their review "Enhancing Credibility of Chemical Safety Studies: Emerging Consensus on Key Assessment Criteria", Conrad and Becker (2011) proposed the application of 10 criteria to individual studies as...
Dioxin Exposure and Cancer Risk in the Seveso Women's Health Study
BACKGROUND: 2, 3, 7, 8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD), a widespread environmental contaminant, disrupts multiple endocrine pathways. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified TCDD as a known human carcinogen, based on predominantly...
Early-Life Soy Exposure and Gender-Role Play Behavior in Children
BACKGROUND: Soy-based infant formula contains high levels of isoflavones. These estrogen-like compounds have been shown to induce changes in sexually dimorphic behaviors in animals exposed in early development. OBJECTIVE: We examined gender-role...
Enhancing Credibility of Chemical Safety Studies: No Consensus
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104130 I commend Conrad and Becker (2011) for frankly discussing the criteria by which to judge data quality in chemical risk assessment. Those criteria revolve tightly around financial conflict of interests. I agree...
Errata
In the Abstract of their article "Estimating Water Supply Arsenic Levels in the New England Bladder Cancer Study" [Environ Health Perspect 119:1279-1285 (2011)], Nuckols et al. reported the following results: Three methods accounted for 93% of the...
Exposure to Trihalomethanes through Different Water Uses and Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age, and Preterm Delivery in Spain
BACKGROUND: Evidence associating exposure to water disinfection by-products with reduced birth weight and altered duration of gestation remains inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We assessed exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) during pregnancy through different...
Forecasts Aid HABs Response
Large accumulations of algae, or harmful algal blooms (HABs), can release toxins and contribute to oxygen-depleted "dead zones" in waters, causing human health problems and disrupting food webs. (1) Costs associated with closed fisheries and beaches...
Full of Beans? Early Soy Exposure Associated with Less Feminine Play in Girls
Animal studies have shown that sexually dimorphic behavior can be influenced by soy isoflavones--compounds with a structural and funccional similarity to estrogen--but there is a lack of informacion regarding the effects of soy isoflavone exposure...
Genetic Variation in Base Excision Repair Pathway Genes, Pesticide Exposure, and Prostate Cancer Risk
BACKGROUND: Previous research indicates increased prostate cancer risk for pesticide applicators and pesticide manufacturing workers. Although underlying mechanisms are unknown, evidence suggests a role of oxidative DNA damage. OBJECTIVES: Because...
Health Effects of Naturally Radioactive Water Ingestion: The Need for Enhanced Studies
BACKGROUND: Radiological pollution is a potentially important aspect of water quality. However, relatively few studies have been conducted to document its possible health effects. OBJECTIVE: In this commentary we discuss available epidemiological...
Hormone Impact: BPA Linked to Altered Gene Expression in Humans
Urinary metabolites of bisphenol A (BPA), a widely used component of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, serve as biomarkers for exposure to the chemical and are detectable in more than 90% of individuals tested in the United States and Europe....
Improving the Linkages between Air Pollution Epidemiology and Quantitative Risk Assessment
BACKGROUND: Air pollution epidemiology plays an integral role in both identifying the hazards of air pollution as well as supplying the risk coefficients that are used in quantitative risk assessments. Evidence from both epidemiology and risk assessments...
Long-Term Urban Particulate Arterial Blood Pressure Air Pollution, Traffic Noise, and Arterial Blood Pressure
BackGROUND: Recent studies have shown an association of short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) with transient increases in blood pressure (BP), but it is unclear whether long-term exposure has an effect on arterial BP and hypertension....
Low Concentrations of Bisphenol a Induce Mouse Spermatogonial Cell Proliferation by G Protein-Coupled Receptor 30 and Estrogen Receptor-[Alpha]
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most prevalent chemicals in daily-use materials; therefore, human exposure to BPA is ubiquitous. The estrogenicity of BPA is generally mediated by nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs). However, low concentrations...
Meeting Report: Mode(s) of Action of Asbestos and Related Mineral Fibers
BACKGROUND: Although asbestos in general is well known to cause a range of neoplastic and non-neoplastic human health effects, not all asbestos fiber types have the same disease-causing potential, and the mode of action (MOA) of specific types of asbestos...
More Lack in the World: The Complex Connection between Undernutrition and Climate Change
Anthropogenic climate change is projected to reduce cereal yields and food security and therefore to undermine future efforts to reduce child undernutrition. But models are needed to better measure the potential impacts of climate change on population...
Nickel ENMs Activate HIF-1[alpha]
The health record of nickel, a known carcinogen, is far from shiny. Now the metal's reputation has been further tarnished with the discovery that nano-scale nickel triggers a cellular pathway linked to cancer much more effectively than larger particles...
Nontoxic Medical Imaging Agents Form Toxic DBPs
Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM), used medically to highlight soft tissues, are considered generally safe, and patients excrete 95% of the dose within 24 hours, making; them a valuable tool in medical imaging. But a new study shows that excreted...
NY DEC Takes on Fracking
New York is one of a handful of states (others include New Jersey, Maryland, and North Carolina) that have banned hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking," pending further study and scientific review. A key element of New York's review is the Supplemental...
Projecting Future Heat-Related Mortality under Climate Change Scenarios: A Systematic Review
BACKGROUND: Heat-related mortality is a matter of great public health concern, especially in the light of climate change. Although many studies have found associations between high temperatures and mortality, more research is needed to project the...
Retrospective Exposure Estimation and Predicted versus Observed Serum Perfluorooctanoic Acid Concentrations for Participants in the C8 Health Project
BACKGROUND: People living or working in eastern Ohio and western West Virginia have been exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) released by DuPont Washington Works facilities. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to estimate historical PFOA exposures...
Sharing Science: Enabling Global Access to the Scientific Literature
Peer-reviewed literature is the formal channel of communication for the scientific community. Through it, scientists convey their discoveries to one another across distance and time. Providing both a broadcast system and an archive, it is pivotal to...
Stormwater Strategies: Cities Prepare Aging Infrastructure for Climate Change
If it weren't for the cement pipe segments nearly nine feet in diameter, oversize yellow backhoes, towering piles of sand, and yawning trenches scattering the streets, the section of Toronto near the junction of Connaught and Fargo avenues would look...
The Beat
Scientists Investigate Burned Gulf Spill Emissions Much of the oil spilled during the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was burned to keep it from reaching the shoreline or harming sea life. NOAA scientists have analyzed the gas...
The Effects of Particulate Matter Sources on Daily Mortality: A Case-Crossover Study of Barcelona, Spain
BACKGROUND: Dozens of studies link acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution with premature mortality and morbidity, but questions remain about which species and sources in the vast PM mixture are responsible for the observed health effects....
The Impact of Temperature on Mortality in Tianjin, China: A Case-Crossover Design with a Distributed Lag Nonlinear Model
BACKGROUND: Although interest in assessing the impacts of temperature on mortality has increased, few studies have used a case-crossover design to examine nonlinear and distributed lag effects of temperature on mortality. Additionally, little evidence...
Toward Better Teamwork: Recommendations for Improved Integration of Epidemiology and Risk Assessment
A four-person team of epidemiologists and risk assessors has taken a somewhat unusual step for their fields: working closely together. Concerned that their colleagues don't collaborate much, despite the interdependence of their work and their mutually...