Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental health magazine.

Articles from Vol. 119, No. 8, August

Acute Pesticide Illnesses Associated with Off-Target Pesticide Drift from Agricultural Applications: 11 States, 1998-2006
BACKGROUND: Pesticides are widely used in agriculture, and off-target pesticide drift exposes workers and the public to harmful chemicals. OBJECTIVE: We estimated the incidence of acute illnesses from pesticide drift from outdoor agricultural applications...
A Different Diabetes: Arsenic Plus High-Fat Diet Yields an Unusual Diabetes Phenotype in Mice
Obesity is the leading cause of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Because inorganic arsenic has been associated with type 2 diabetes in laboratory studies, chronic arsenic exposure has been hypothesized to heighten the risk of diabetes in obese individuals....
A Kinder Side of Red Tides?
We always want to see what is hidden by what we see, Rene Magritte, artist (1898-1967) Investigators conducting a decade-long study into how Florida's "red tide" algal blooms affect human health have discovered several compounds that counteract...
All Diesel Exhaust Is Not the Same: Engine Load Alters Toxicity
After decades of research on the adverse health effects of diesel engine exhaust (DEE), important information gaps still remain. Among these gaps are differences in the composition of DEE created when an engine operates under different load conditions...
An Approach for Quantitatively Balancing Methylmercury Risk and Omega-3 Benefit in Fish Consumption Advisories
Office of Science, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton, New Jersey, USA BACKGROUND: Nearly all fish consumption advisories for methylmercury (MeHg) are based only on risk. There is a need to also address benefits, especially...
A Pollution Model Upgrade? Incorporating the Local Scale in National Models
Networks of fixed-site air monitors form the backbone of current efforts to predict health effects of air pollution. But there aren't enough monitors on the ground to accurately account for local variations in ambient concentrations of air pollutants,...
A Review of Seafood Safety after the Deepwater Horizon Blowout
BACKGROUND: The Deepwater Horizon (DH) blowout resulted in fisheries closings across the Gulf of Mexico. Federal agencies, in collaboration with impacted Gulf states, developed a protocol to determine when it is safe to reopen fisheries based on sensory...
Assessing the Ecotoxicologic Hazards of a Pandemic Influenza Medical Response
BACKGROUND: The global public health community has closely monitored the unfolding of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic to best mitigate its impact on society. However, little attention has been given to the impact of this response on the environment....
Blind Rush? Shale Gas Boom Proceeds amid Human Health Questions
In 2003 Range Resources, a natural gas company based in worth, Texas, was among the first of its competitors working on what appeared to be a promising deposit in Pennsylvania called the Marcellus Shale. Geologists had long believed the Marcellus was...
Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury in Relation to Reproductive Hormones and Anovulation in Premenopausal Women
BACKGROUND: Metals can interfere with hormonal functioning by binding at the receptor site and through indirect mechanisms; thus, they may be associated with hormonal changes in premenopausal women. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between...
Carbon Black
In "Research Recommendations for Selected IARC-Classified Agents," Ward et al. (2010) identified research gaps for 20 occupational agents "based on evidence of widespread human exposures and potential carcinogenicity in animals or humans." (Ward et...
Carbon Black: Kuempel et Al. Respond
We appreciate the comments and additional information from McCunney et al. We are pleased to learn of the new epidemiological studies that are under way in the U.S. and E.U. carbon black cohorts. These studies may provide the opportunity to fill some...
Case Report: High Prenatal Bisphenol a Exposure and Infant Neonatal Neurobehavior
CONTEXT: Most of the U.S. population is exposed to the high-production-volume chemical bisphenol A (BPA), but targetable sources of exposure remain to be determined. Animal studies and one human study suggest that BPA is a neurotoxicant. CASE PRESENTATION:...
Characterization of the Impaired Glucose Homeostasis Produced in C57BL/6 Mice by Chronic Exposure to Arsenic and High-Fat Diet
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Obesity is the leading cause of type 2 diabetes. Growing evidence suggests that chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) also produces symptoms consistent...
Chemical Genomics Profiling of Environmental Chemical Modulation of Human Nuclear Receptors
BACKGROUND: The large and increasing number of chemicals released into the environment demands more efficient and cost-effective approaches for assessing environmental chemical toxicity. The U.S. Tox21 program has responded to this challenge by proposing...
Creating National Air Pollution Models for Population Exposure Assessment in Canada
BACKGROUND: Population exposure assessment methods that capture local-scale pollutant variability are needed for large-scale epidemiological studies and surveillance, policy, and regulatory purposes. Currently, such exposure methods are limited. ...
Current Assessment of the Effects of Environmental Chemicals on the Mammary Gland in Guideline Rodent Studies by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), and National Toxicology Program (NTP)
National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the structural and/or functional integrity of the mammary gland (MG) across life...
Diesel Exhaust Activates and Primes Microglia: Air Pollution, Neuroinflammation, and Regulation of Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is linked to central nervous system disease, but the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: Here, we sought to address the brain-region-specific effects of diesel exhaust (DE) and key cellular mechanisms...
Engine-Operating Load Influences Diesel Exhaust Composition and Cardiopulmonary and Immune Responses
BACKGROUND: The composition of diesel engine exhaust (DEE) varies by engine type and condition, fuel, engine operation, and exhaust after treatment such as particle traps. DEE has been shown to increase inflammation, susceptibility to infection, and...
Environmental Exposures and Mammary Gland Development: State of the Science, Public Health Implications, and Research Recommendations
OBJECTIVES: Perturbations in mammary gland (MG) development may increase risk for later adverse effects, including lactation impairment, gynecomastia (in males), and breast cancer. Animal studies indicate that exposure to hormonally active agents leads...
EPA Rule Targets Smokestack Pollution
In July 2011 the U.S. EPA finalized the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule to reduce [SO.sub.2] and NO (x) emissions from power plants using available emissions control technologies.(1) [SO.sub.2] and [NO.sub.x] contribute to ground-level ozone and fine...
Errata
Vrijheid ct al. [Environ Health Perspect 119:598-606 (2011)] have reported errors in their paper, which resulted from errors in formulas applied to convert risk estimates for continuous exposure from reviewed studies. These errors affect the summary...
Gestational and Chronic Low-Dose PFOA Exposures and Mammary Gland Growth and Differentiation in Three Generations of CD-1 Mice
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a ubiquitous industrial surfactant, has been reported to delay mammary gland development in female mouse offspring (F (1)) and the treated lactating dam (P (0)) after gestational treatments...
Hookahs: Hot and Hazardous
Hookah cafes are an increasingly popular venue for socializing. In addition to beverages, appetizers, and desserts, habitues can order different flavors of tobacco that they smoke through waterpipes. Many patrons of hookah cafes believe smoking a waterpipe...
Identification of Candidate Genes Downstream of TLR4 Signaling after Ozone Exposure in Mice: A Role for Heat-Shock Protein 70
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in ozone ([O.sub.3])-induced pulmonary hyper-permeability and inflammation, although the downstream signaling events are unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aims of our study were to determine the mechanism...
Isothiocyanates Reduce Mercury Accumulation Via an Nrf2-Dependent Mechanism during Exposure of Mice to Methylmercury
BACKGROUND: Methylmercury (MeHg) exhibits neurotoxicity through accumulation in the brain. The transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) plays an important role in reducing the cellular accumulation of MeHg. OBJECTIVES:...
Mosquito Gut Bacterium May Curb Malaria
Before Plasmodium falciparum, the most important human malaria parasite, can infect people, it must first infect its mosquito host. But that's not always so easy to do, according to a team of researchers from the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg...
Neurotoxicity of PBDEs: Dingemans et Al. Respond
Banasik and Suchecka express their discontent with our recent review on the (in-)direct neurotoxic effects of parent and hydroxylated (OH-) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on the (developing) nervous system (Dingemans et al. 2011). Their main...
Neurotoxicity of PBDEs on the Developing Nervous System
Dingemans et al. (2011) published a review article on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the developing nervous system. However, the authors summarized but failed to critically evaluate the articles cited in their review. They also did not...
New Device Measures Atmospheric Isocyanic Acid
Isocyanic acid (chemically HNCO), a contaminant linked to cataracts and heart disease, has for the first time been measured in the atmosphere. (1) The discovery was made by researchers at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) who...
Oil Sands Contaminants
In the article "Alberta's Oil Sands: Hard Evidence, Missing Data, New Promises," Weinhold (2011) misrepresented the findings of our Royal Society of Canada report (Gosselin et al. 2010) too often to recount fully here. Despite requesting my review...
Oil Sands Contaminants: Editor's Response
The article by Weinhold (2011) offered an overview of potential environmental and health issues related to oil sands operations and was never intended to be nor presented solely as a recapitulation of the Royal Society of Canada (RSC) report (Gosselin...
Particulate Matter Exposures, Mortality, and Cardiovascular Disease in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study
BACKGROUND: The association of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes with air pollution exposures has been well established in the literature. The number of studies examining chronic exposures in cohorts is growing, with more recent studies...
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons-Aromatic DNA Adducts in Cord Blood and Behavior Scores in New York City Children
BACKGROUND: Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are widespread urban pollutants that can bind to DNA to form PAH-DNA adducts. Prenatal PAH exposure measured by personal monitoring has been linked to cognitive deficits in childhood in a...
Precarious Balance: Methylmercury, Selenium, and Cardiovascular Health
Inuit people living in Canada's Nunavik region consume large doses of methylmercury through their traditional diet, mostly from sea mammal meat. A new study set out looking for evidence of links between these native communities' exposure to the toxic...
Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and IQ in 7-Year-Old Children
CONTEXT: Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are neurotoxic at high doses. Few studies have examined whether chronic exposure at lower levels could adversely affect children's cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: We examined associations between prenatal...
Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphates, Paraoxonase 1, and Cognitive Development in Childhood
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides has been shown to negatively affect child neurobehavioral development. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship...
Relation between Methylmercury Exposure and Plasma Paraoxonase Activity in Inuit Adults from Nunavik
BACKGROUND: Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure has been linked to an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an enzyme located in the high-densiry-lipoprotein (HDL) fraction of blood lipids, may protect against CHD by metabolizing...
Risk Assessment Related to Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Gas and Particle Phases near Industrial Sites
BACKGROUND: Inhalation is one of the main means of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) because of their ubiquitous presence in the atmosphere. However, most studies have considered only PAHs found in the particle phase and have...
Seven-Year Neurodevelopmental Scores and Prenatal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos, a Common Agricultural Pesticide
BACKGROUND: In a longitudinal birth cohort study of inner-city mothers and children (Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health), we have previously reported that prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) was associated with neurodevelopmental...
Strength in Numbers: Three Separate Studies Link in Utero Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Cognitive Development
Children entering classrooms for the first time this fall can be seen carrying backpacks filled with school supplies, yet each new student brings something less obvious but more important--a legacy of their earlier experiences and environment. Three...
Study in Balance: How Microbiomes Are Changing the Shape of Environmental Health
The agents we now know as bacteria have been known for centuries to play a key role in certain kinds of illnesses and ailments. But aside from infectious diseases, the communities of microbes we carry in specific parts of our bodies--our microbiomes--are...
Testing Chemicals for Effects on Breast Development Lactation, and Cancer
Factors across the life cycle, beginning before birth, influence breast cancer risk. We know this from epidemiologic studies of characteristics self-reported by older women or gleaned from medical records. For example, larger babies have higher breast...
The Fungicide Chlorothalonil Is Nonlinearly Associated with Corticosterone Levels, Immunity, and Mortality in Amphibians
BACKGROUND: Contaminants have been implicated in declines of amphibians, a taxon with vital systems similar to those of humans. However, many chemicals have not been thoroughly tested on amphibians or do not directly kill them. OBJECTIVES: Our goal...
Three Criteria for Ecological Fallacy
In a large cohort study published in Environmental Health Perspectives, Brenner et al. (2011) confirmed previous results on 1-131 exposure and thyroid cancer among a Ukranian population. According to the authors, one motivation to study this association...