Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental health magazine.

Articles from Vol. 116, No. 4, April

A Climate for Pollution
Carbon dioxide (C[O.sub.2]) emissions may be killing people by increasing airborne concentrations of other pollutants including ozone, particulate matter, and carcinogens such as formaldehyde and benzene, a Stanford University scientist reports in...
Acrylamide Study Suggests Breast Cancer Link
The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies acrylamide as a probable human carcinogen. It has only been in recent months that an epidemiologic study first found a link between dietary acrylamide and human cancer risk. Now Danish researchers...
Aggregation and Toxicology of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles
doi:10.1289/ehp.10915 In their study of inhalation exposure of titanium dioxide particles, Grassian et al. (2007) presented a transmission electron micrograph (TEM) (their Figure 2A) as an image of "dispersed" Ti[O.sub.2] nanoparticles. Yet, the...
A New Day for Global Environmental Health
doi:10.1289/ehp.11322 This April marks the celebration of two significant global events relevant to the mission of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated 7 April to be...
An Eye to the Sea
Gardening, choosing contraception, driving to work--we don't typically think of these actions as having a high impact on fisheries, but they can. A session titled "From Kitchen Sinks to Ocean Basins: Emerging Chemical Contaminants and Human Health"...
Angiogenic Potential of 3-Nitro-4-Hydroxy Benzene Arsonic Acid (Roxarsone)
Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a worldwide public health concern. The extent of the concern in some countries has reached a point such that some are calling this humanity's largest mass poisoning (Bhattacharjee 2007). Even low levels of...
Arsenic and Erectile Dysfunction: Drinking Contaminated Well Water Increases Risk
Age is the most common risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED), the consistent or recurrent inability to attain and/or maintain a penile erection sufficient for sexual performance. The correlation between age and ED is attributed to declines in testosterone...
Associations between Recent Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and Blood Pressure in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)
Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been associated with increased hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease, and increased cardiovascular disease mortality (Dockery 2001; Miller et al. 2007). Studies have suggested that vascular,...
Benefits of Sunlight: A Bright Spot for Human Health
Each day, Apollo's fiery chariot makes its way across the sky, bringing life-giving light to the planet. For the ancient Greeks and Romans, Apollo was the god of medicine and healing as well as of sun and light--but Apollo could bring sickness as well...
Better Than Eating Worms? Children's Dietary Exposure to OP Pesticides
Widespread agricultural use of organophosphate (OP) pesticides frequently leads to low-level exposures in adults and children who eat conventionally grown foods. The frequently used one-time measurement of OP metabolites reveals only short-term exposures,...
Bleached, but Not by the Sun: Sunscreen Linked to Coral Damage
Warm, shallow, sun-drenched seas sparkling with brilliantly colored fish and coral species--we've all seen dazzling images of tropical reefs. Coral reefs are among the most biologically productive and diverse ecosystems in the world, providing food...
Characterization of Phthalate Exposure among Pregnant Women Assessed by Repeat Air and Urine Samples
Phthalates are a class of synthetic compounds used widely in polyvinyl chloride plastics, in cosmetics, and in building materials. Biomonitoring data suggest that > 75% of the U.S. population is exposed to phthalates, including di-(2-ethylhexyl)...
Comments on "The Sweet Scent on Baby's Breath?"
doi:10.1289/ehp.10993 The stated mission of Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is to serve as a forum for the discussion of the interrelationships between the environment and human health by publishing in a balanced and objective manner...
Contamination of Potable Water Distribution Systems by Multiantimicrobial-Resistant Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli
Escherichia coli, a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of warm-blooded animals, is used as an indicator of water quality. Certain serotypes have been associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and mortality in humans (Bruneau et al....
Cooking with Wood May Fuel Low Birth Weight: Kitchen Smoke Puts Babies at Risk
The etiology of low birth weight (LBW; defined as weighing less than 2.5 kg at birth) is complex, with demographic, nutritional, reproductive, and socioeconomic factors each potentially playing a role. Inhaled tobacco smoke is the leading cause of...
DDT and Breast Cancer
doi:10.1289/ehp.11025 In a recent article, Cohn et al. (2007) noted an association between increased breast cancer risk and p,p'-DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] exposure early in life. Their article should be interpreted with...
Developmental Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls Influences Stroke Outcome in Adult Rats
Neonatal factors can cause latent functional changes that increase susceptibility to disease and/or dysfunction later in life. This hypothesis of the "developmental origins of adult disease" was originally derived from studies that identified stroke...
Dietary Intake and Its Contribution to Longitudinal Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure in Urban/suburban Children
Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, a group of cholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides, have been widely used both in residential and agricultural environments because of their broad spectrum of insecticidal activity and effectiveness. The widespread...
Do Targeted Bans of Insecticides to Prevent Deaths from Self-Poisoning Result in Reduced Agricultural Output?
Pesticide self-poisoning is a major problem in rural areas of the Asian Pacific developing world (Eddleston and Phillips 2004; Konradsen et al. 2005). Widespread agricultural use of pesticides and home storage make them easily available for acts of...
Drinking-Water Arsenic Exposure Modulates Gene Expression in Human Lymphocytes from a U.S. Population
Arsenic exposure impairs development and can lead to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes [International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 2004]. The mechanism underlying these effects remains unknown. Primarily because of geologic sources...
Drought in the Southeast: Lessons for Water Management
Long spared the persistent droughts that have plagued the western United States this century, the Southeast suddenly finds itself the most rain-starved region of the country. In the face of this threat, policy makers and utility companies are struggling...
Ecological Uptake and Depuration of Carbon Nanotubes by Lumbriculus Variegatus
Carbon nanotubes have been the subject of extensive research over the past decade because of potential breakthroughs in a broad range of applications. Discovered by Sumio Iijima in 1991 (Iijima 1991), nanotubes are essentially seamless cylinders composed...
Exposure to Bisphenol a Prenatally or in Adulthood Promotes [T.Sub.H]2 Cytokine Production Associated with Reduction of CD[4.Sup.+]CD[25.Sup.+] Regulatory T Cells
Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), has drawn attention because of its potential for human exposure. BPA is widely used, including in dentistry, food packaging, and lacquers to coat food cans and water pipes. It can...
Fe-TAML Takes on Estrogens in Effluent
For more than a decade, endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been an environmental and health worry, linked to cancer and reproductive abnormalities in humans and animals. The European Union's new REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation...
Fine Particle Sources and Cardiorespiratory Morbidity: An Application of Chemical Mass Balance and Factor Analytical Source-Apportionment Methods
Recent interest in the health effects of particulate matter (PM) has focused on identifying sources of PM that pose the greatest health risks. Because it is likely that not all PM is equally toxic, epidemiologic models that incorporate source-resolved...
Genetic Variants Associated with Arsenic Susceptibility: Study of Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase, Arsenic (+3) Methyltransferase, and Glutathione S-Transferase Omega Genes
Arsenic is recognized as a potent environmental toxicant that causes severe health problems in populations chronically exposed to arsenic-contaminated drinking water. However, the disease manifestations often depend on individual genetic variability....
Impaired Reproductive Development in Sons of Women Occupationally Exposed to Pesticides during Pregnancy
Sex hormones are involved in the regulation of fetal sex differentiation, and disturbance of the hormonal balance at critical developmental stages can affect the phenotype and gonadal function (Sharpe 2006a). Fetal exposure to manufactured substances...
New Books
Air Pollution XVI C.A. Brebbia, J.W.S. Longhurst Billerica, MA: WIT Press, 2008. 600 pp. ISBN: 978-1-84564-127-6, $396 Biological Monitoring: Theory and Applications M.E. Conti, ed. Billerica, MA: WIT Press, 2008. 256 pp. ISBN:...
NIEHS Extramural Global Environmental Health Portfolio: Opportunities for Collaboration
Global environmental health (GEH) has evolved into a critical topic for environmental health researchers and practitioners. Emergent issues--such as health effects of climate change and electronic waste disposal--have joined more familiar GEH concerns...
Personal and Ambient Air Pollution Exposures and Lung Function Decrements in Children with Asthma
Acute adverse effects of air pollution on asthma outcomes in small cohorts of children have been reported in longitudinal studies using repeated daily measurements (panel studies). More recently, this includes positive associations between a biomarker...
Phytoestrogens and Breast Cancer Prevention: Possible Mechanisms of Action
Breast cancer is an important public health problem worldwide. In the United States, breast cancer represents the most common neoplasm and the second most frequent cause of cancer death in women (American Cancer Society 2006). Steroidal estrogens have...
Prenatal Exposure to Wood Fuel Smoke and Low Birth Weight
Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with high mortality and morbidity in infants (Ismail et al. 2003; Khan et al. 2005; Moss et al. 2002; Tripathy et al. 2002). LBW leads to postnatal stunting (Fikree et al. 2000), micronutrient deficiencies (Rasmussen...
Residential Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Survival after Heart Failure
Long-term exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated with increases in mortality, especially in cardiopulmonary mortality (Dockery et al. 1993; Hoek et al. 2002; Jerrett et al. 2005; Miller et al. 2007; Pope et al. 2002). Even though...
Risk of Childhood Cancers Associated with Residence in Agriculturally Intense Areas in the United States
Increased incidence of certain cancers among farmers and workers employed in agricultural settings has been reported in a variety of epidemiologic studies, raising concerns about exposure to agricultural chemicals in general and agricultural pesticides...
Risk of Erectile Dysfunction Induced by Arsenic Exposure through Well Water Consumption in Taiwan
According to the definitions of the First International Consultation on erectile dysfunction (ED), co-sponsored by the World Health Organization (WHO), ED is considered "the consistent or recurrent inability to attain and/or to maintain a penile erection...
Sunscreens Cause Coral Bleaching by Promoting Viral Infections
Coral reefs are among the most biologically productive and diverse ecosystems in the world, representing hot spots of marine biodiversity, and directly sustaining half a billion people (Moberg and Folke 1999; Wilkinson 2004). Approximately 60% of coral...
The Cuyahoga Is Still Burning
doi:10.1289/ehp.11419 Almost 40 years ago, in 1969, the Cuyahoga River caught fire as it flowed through Akron and Cleveland, Ohio. Although it was not the only river to burn, the image of this burning river--the terrible wronging of nature--became...
The Impact of Secondary Particles on the Association between Ambient Ozone and Mortality
Tropospheric ozone, a secondary pollutant, is a major constituent of photochemical smog. There is very strong scientific evidence that exposure to ozone leads to a variety of adverse health outcomes. Recent population-based time-series studies (Bell...
The Interaction of Agricultural Pesticides and Marginal Iodine Nutrition Status as a Cause of Autism Spectrum Disorders
doi:10.1289/ehp.11010 Roberts et al. (2007) recently reported on the results of their investigation into the relationship between agricultural pesticides and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and found an association between organochlorines and ASD....
Transformation of Human Urothelial Cells (UROtsa) by [As.Sup.3+] and [Cd.Sup.2+] Induces the Expression of Keratin 6a
This laboratory has demonstrated that both cadmium and arsenite can directly malignantly transform the UROtsa cell line (Sens et al. 2004). It was also shown that the tumor heterotransplants produced by the [Cd.sup.2+]- and [As.sup.3+]-transformed...
Use of Cell Viability Assay Data Improves the Prediction Accuracy of Conventional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Models of Animal Carcinogenicity
The traditional approaches for in vivo animal chemical safety testing are costly, time consuming, and have a low throughput (Bucher and Portier 2004). To improve the efficiency of assessing potential human health hazards of environmental chemicals,...
WHO Ultraviolet Radiation Website
http://www.who.int/uv/en/ The World Health Organization (WHO) has devoted a section of its website to activities related to the health effects of sunlight. The homepage for this section provides a brief overview of the topic along with links to...