Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental health magazine.

Articles from Vol. 117, No. 1, January

Adult Women's Blood Mercury Concentrations Vary Regionally in the United States: Association with Patterns of Fish Consumption (NHANES 1999-2004)
BACKGROUND: The current, continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (NHANES) has included blood mercury (BHg) and fish/shellfish consumption since it began in 1999. NHANES 1999-2004 data form the basis for these analyses. OBJECTIVES:...
Air Pollution and Childhood Respiratory Allergies in the United States
Background; Childhood respiratory allergies, which contribute to missed school days and other activity limitations, have increased in recent years, possibly due to environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: In this study we examined whether air pollutants...
A Major Milestone for the National Children's Study
doi:10.1289lehp.12416 In January 2009, after 8 years of planning and development, the National Children's Study (NCS; http://www.nationalchildrensstudy. gov/Pages/default.aspx) will begin enrollment and data collection at the first of the initial,...
A Retrospective Performance Assessment of the Developmental Neurotoxicity Study in Support of OECD Test Guideline 426
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a review of the history and performance of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing in support or the finalization and implementation of Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) DNT test guideline 426 (TG...
Associations between [PM.Sub.2.5] and Heart Rate Variability Are Modified by Particle Composition and Beta-Blocker Use in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that ambient particulate air pollution is able to modify the autonomic nervous control of the heart, measured as heart rate variability (HRV). Previously we reported heterogeneous associations between particulate...
Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites in Milk, Urine, Saliva, and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women
BACKGROUND: Phthalates are ubiquitous in the environment, but concentrations in multiple media from breast-feeding U.S. women have not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to accurately measure and compare the concentrations...
Cord Blood Mercury and Early Child Development: Effects of the World Trade Center
doi: 10.1289lenhp.0800155 Lederman et al. (2008) assessed Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Verbal and Full Intelligence Quotient Scores (VFIQS) (at 36 months of age for PDI and 48 months for VFIQS) as a function of prenatal mercury exposure...
Cord Blood Mercury and Early Child Development: Lederman and Perera Respond
doi:10.1289/ehp.0800155R In our study (Lederman et al. 2008), we examined the relation of cord and maternal blood mercury levels to child developmental outcomes at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years of age in a cohort whose mothers were selected because they...
DDT Exposure of Zebrafish Embryos Enhances Seizure Susceptibility: Relationship to Fetal P,p'-DDE Burden and Domoic Acid Exposure of California Sea Lions
BACKGROUND: California sea lions have a large body burden of organochlorine pesticides, and over the last decade they have also been subject to domoic acid poisoning. Domoic acid poisoning, previously recognized in adult animals, is now viewed as a...
Deducing in Vivo Toxicity of Combustion-Derived Nanoparticles from a Cell-Free Oxidative Potency Assay and Metabolic Activation of Organic Compounds
BACKGROUND: The inhalation of combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs) is believed to cause an oxidative stress response, which in turn may lead to pulmonatry or even systemic inflammation. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In this study we assessed whether...
Dietary Intake of Methionine, Cysteine, and Protein and Urinary Arsenic Excretion in Bangladesh
BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water; arsenic is associated with increased risk of cancer. Once ingested, arsenic is metabolized via methylation and excreted in urine. Knowledge about nutritional factors...
Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Blood Lead Levels in Pregnancy: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial
BACKGROUND: Prenatal lead exposure is associated with deficits in fetal growth and neurodevelopment. Calcium supplementation may attenuate fetal exposure by inhibiting mobilization of maternal bone lead and/or intestinal absorption of ingested lead....
EHP Update
doi: 10. 1289lehp. 12402 January marks the completion of my first year as editor-in-chief of Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP). Anniversaries and new years always tend to promote reflection on the year just past and provide an opportunity...
Environmental Threats to Elders' Neurologic Health
Age-related chronic diseases will put unprecedented stress on U.S. society with a near-doubling of the number of people aged 65 years and older by 2030, according to the U.S. Administration on Aging. These diseases are also complex. An October 2008...
Extra Protection for Pregnant Women: Calcium Supplement Reduces Blood Lead
Lead, like calcium, is stored in bones and generally does not circulate throughout the body. But the demands of pergnancy and lactation trigger the release of calcium, which also releases lead into the maternal blood stream. Researchers previously...
Gamete Gamble: Phthalate Alters Germ Cell Development
Di-2-ethyhexyl phthalate (DEHP), one of the most abundant phthalates produced, has been incorporated into flexible plastic products such as food containers and packaging, toys, medical equipment, and home and garden products. DEHP is being phased out...
Household Exposure to Paint and Petroleum Solvents, Chromosomal Translocations, and the Risk of Childhood Leukemia
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the association between home use of solvents and paint and the risk of childhood leukemia. OBJECTIVES: In this case-control study, we examined whether the use of paint and petroleum solvents at home before birth...
Hydroxylated Metabolites of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Human Blood Samples from the United States
BACKGROUND: A previous study from our laboratory showed that polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were metabolized to hydroxylated PBDEs (HO-PBDEs) in mice and that para-HO-PBDEs were the most abundant and, potentially, the most toxic metabolites....
Intrauterine Exposure to Environmental Pollutants and Body Mass Index during the First 3 Years of Life
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) and prenatal exposure to hexachlorobenzene, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dioxin-like compounds, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)....
Iron Metabolism Genes, Low-Level Lead Exposure, and QT Interval
BACKGROUND: Cumulative exposure to lead has been shown to be associated with depression of electrocardiographic conduction, such as QT interval (time from start of the Q wave to end of the T wave). Because iron can enhance the oxidative effects of...
Is There Evidence for Synergy among Air Pollutants in Causing Health Effects?
BACKGROUND: Environmental air pollutants are inhaled as complex mixtures, but the long dominant focus of monitoring and research on individual pollutants has provided modest insight into pollutant interactions that may be important to health. Trends...
Long-Term Effects on Hypothalamic Neuropeptides after Developmental Exposure to Chlorpyrifos in Mice
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence from animal and human studies indicates that chlorpyrifos (CPF), similar to other organophosphorus insecticides still widely used, is a developmental neurotoxicant. Developmental exposure to CPF in rodents induces sex-dimorphic...
Meeting Report; Consensus Statement-Parkinson's Disease and the Environment; Collaborative on Health and the Environment and Parkinson's Action Network (CHE PAN) Conference 26-28 June 2007
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. People with PD, their families, scientists, health care providers, and the general public are increasingly interested in identifying environmental contributors...
Missing the Dark: Health Effects of Light Pollution
In 1879, Thomas Edison's incandescent light bulbs first illuminated a New York street, and the modern era of electric lighting began. Since then, the world has become awash in electric light. Powerful lamps light up streets, yards, parking lots, and...
National Children's Study Begins Recruitment
After nearly a decade of planning, the National Children's Study is finally set to launch. Scientists hope this 20-year nationwide study will unravel the mysteries of some of today's most significant threats to children's health. "The National Children's...
New Books
Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation Zev Levin, William R. Cotton, eds. New York: Springer, 2009. 386 pp. ISBN: 978-1-4020-8689-2, $229 Comparative Genomics Craig Nelson; Stephane Vialette, eds. New York: Springer, 2008. 265 p....
One-Month Diesel Exhaust Inhalation Produces Hypertensive Gene Expression Pattern in Healthy Rats
BACHGROUND: Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) is linked to vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, and myocardial ischemia in compromised individuals. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that DE inhalation would cause greater inflammation, hematologic alternations,...
Parental Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls: A Neuropsychologic Analysis
OBJECTIVES: A large body of literature documents the effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on cognitive development of children. Despite this fact, no integrative synthesis has been published yet to identify the cognitive...
PCBs Make Their Mark: Review Pinpoints Cognitive Profile of Prenatal Exposure
Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) impairs cognitive development in infants and children, according to numberous studies of these ubiquitous environmental pollutants. Studies of PCB damage have considered many different end points,...
Phthalates Impair Germ Cell Development in the Human Fetal Testis in Vitro without Change in Testosterone Production
BACKGROUND: Several studies have described an increasing frequency of male reproductive disorders, which may have a common origin in fetal life and which are hypothesized to be caused by endocrine disruptors. Phthalate esters represent a class of environmental...
Programmed Obesity? Study Links Intrauterine Exposures to Higher BMI in Toddlers
To date, there have been relatively few epidemiologic studies investigating the association between intrauterine exposure to chemicals and body mass index (BMI, which characterizes weight in relation to height). Now a prospective birth cohort study...
Summit Focuses on Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water
Keeping our drinking water clean and contaminant-free is a concern of many policy makers and scientists, and it was the headlining topic at the inaugural Environmental Health Summit of the Research Triangle Environmental Health Collaborative held 10-11...
Switch on the Night: Policies for Smarter Lighting
It was an August afternoon in 2003 when the lights went out on Broadway, and for that matter, throughout most of the Northeast, Midwest, and Ontario--a power blackout left 50 million customers in the dark overnight. Despite complaints about the inconveniences,...
The 2006 California Heat Wave: Impacts on Hospitalizations and Emergency Department Visits
BACKGROUND: Climate models project that heat waves will increase in frequency and severity. Despite many studies of mortality from heat waves, few studies have examined morbidity. OBJECTIVES: In this study we investigated whether any age or race/ethnicity...
Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Perinatal Mortality: A Case-Control Study
BACKGROUND: Ambient levels of air pollution may affect the health of children, as indicated by studies of infant and perinatal mortality. Scientific evidence has also correlated low birth weight and pre-term birth, which are important determinants...
Urinary Levoglucosan as a Biomarker of Wood Smoke Exposure: Observations in a Mouse Model and in Children
BACKGROUND: Biomass smoke is an important source of particulate matter (PM), and much remains to be discovered with respect to the human health effects associated with this specific PM source. Exposure to biomass smoke can occur in one of two main...
Windblown Lead Carbonate as the Main Source of Lead in Blood of Children from a Seaside Community: An Example of Local Birds as "Canaries in the Mine"
BACKGROUND: In late 2006, the seaside community in Esperance, Western Australia, was alerted to thousands of native bird species dying. The source of the lead was thought to derive from the handling of Pb carbonate concentrate from the Magellan mine...
WNV Thrives in Financial Crisis
Criminal, civil, and journalistic inventigators "follow the money" to identify the culprit of a crime. Public health detectives sometimes follow suit, since income is a well-known indicator of relative healthiness. In a new twist on this association,...