Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental health magazine.

Articles from Vol. 117, No. 2, February

Analysis of Endocrine Disruption in Southern California Coastal Fish Using an Aquatic Multispecies Microarray
BACKGROUND: Endocrine disruptors include plasticizers, pesticides, detergents, and pharmaceuticals. Turbot and other flatfish are used to characterize the presence of chemicals in the marine environment. Unfortunately, there are relatively few genes...
Association between Frequency of Chromosomal Aberrations and Cancer Risk Is Not Influenced by Genetic Polymorphisms in GSTM1 and GSTT1
BACKGROUND: The frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy individuals has been associated with cancer risk. It is presently unclear whether this association is influenced by individual susceptibility factors...
Biochar: Carbon Mitigation from the Ground Up
As multibillion-dollar projects intended to sequester carbon dioxide ([CO.sub.2]) in deep geologic storage continue to seek financial support, the fertile black soils in the Amazon basin suggest a cheaper, lower-tech route toward the same destination....
Bisphenol A at Low Nanomolar Doses Confers Chemoresistance in Estrogen Receptor-[Alpha]-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer Cells
BACKGROUND: Resistance to chemotherapy is a major problem facing breast cancer patients, and identifying potential contributors to chemoresistance is a critical area of research. Bisphenol A (BPA) has long been suspected to promote carcinogenesis,...
Cadmium Levels in Urine and Mortality among U.S. Adults
BACKGROUND: Cadmium exposure has been associated with increased all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality. However, studies investigating this association have included participants with considerably higher levels of cadmium than those...
Carbon Offsets: Growing Pains in a Growing Market
There's a market growing in the United States, but unlike markets that trade in tangible commodities, this one trades in the absence of something no one wants: greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Hundreds of companies make it possible for individuals,...
Coal Use, Stove Improvement, and Adult Pneumonia Mortality in Xuanwei, China: A Retrospective Cohort Study
BACKGROUND: In Xuanwei County, China, unvented indoor coal burning is strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the impact of coal burning and stove improvement on risk of pneumonia is...
Dengue Transmission
doi: 10.1289/ehp.0800227 In "Dengue Reborn: Widespread Resurgence of a Resilient Vector," Phillips (2008) highlighted the relevant message to alert people involved in dengue and chikungunya control programs, as well as researchers. As a scientist...
Double Trouble: Flu Intensifies Effects of Ozone
Environmental health scientists have long speculated that the influenza virus could intensify the pulmonary effects of air pollution or vice versa. Like air pollution, influenza affects primarily the respiratory system, and ambient air pollutants may...
Early Kidney Damage in a Population Exposed to Cadmium and Other Heavy Metals
BACKGROUND: Exposure to heavy metals may cause kidney damage. The population living near the Avonmouth zinc smelter has been exposed to cadmium and other heavy metals for many decades. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess Cd body burden and early signs...
Effect of Arsenic Exposure during Pregnancy on Infant Development at 7 Months in Rural Matlab, Bangladesh
BACKGROUND: Exposure to arsenic-contaminated drinking water during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight and fetal loss, and there is concern that the infants' development may be affected. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of in utero arsenic...
Effects of Particulate Matter on Genomic DNA Methylation Content and iNOS Promoter Methylation
BACKGROUND: Altered patterns of gene expression mediate the effects of particulate matter (PM) on human health, but mechanisms through which PM modifies gene expression are largely undetermined. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at identifying short- and long-term...
Efficacy of Simple Short-Term in Vitro Assays for Predicting the Potential of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles to Cause Pulmonary Inflammation
BACKGROUND: There has been concern regarding risks from inhalation exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). The large number of particles requiring testing means that alternative approaches to animal testing are needed. OBJECTIVES: We set out to determine...
Endocrine Disruptors in the Workplace, Hair Spray, Folate Supplementation, and Risk of Hypospadias: Case-Control Study
BACKGROUND: Hypospadias is one of the most common urogenital congenital anomalies affecting baby boys. Prevalence estimates in Europe range from 4 to 24 per 10,000 births, depending on definition, with higher rates reported from the United States....
Environment and Obesity in the National Children's Study
OBJECTIVE: In this review we describe the approach taken by the National Children's Study (NCS), a 21-year prospective study of 100,000 American children, to understanding the role of environmental factors in the development of obesity. DATA SOURCES...
Fluorescent Probe Detects Mercury
Mercury is toxic to the nervous system and may cause memory loss, cognitive and behavioral disturbances, headaches, insomnia, peripheral nerve damage, tremors, and motor dysfunction--all problems that have been observed to disappear upon removing the...
Folate Deficiency, Hyperhomocysteinemia, Low Urinary Creatinine, and Hypomethylation of Leukocyte DNA Are Risk Factors for Arsenic-Induced Skin Lesions
BACKGROUND: Arsenic methylation relies on folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism and facilitates urinary As elimination. Clinical manifestations of As toxicity vary considerably among individuals and populations, and poor methylation capacity is thought...
How the Effect of Maternal Age on the Risk of Childhood Leukemia Changed over Time in Sweden, 1960-2004
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the association between maternal age and risk of childhood leukemia found inconsistent results. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess whether there is an association between maternal age and risk of childhood leukemia and...
In-Home Particle Concentrations and Childhood Asthma Morbidity
BACKGROUND: Although outdoor particulate matter (PM) has been linked to mortality and asthma morbidity, the impact of indoor PM on asthma has not been well established. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to investigate the effect of in-home PM on...
Medications as a Potential Source of Exposure to Phthalates in the U.S. Population
BACKGROUND: Widespread human exposure to phthalates, some of which are developmental and reproductive toxicants in experimental animals, raises concerns about potential human health risks. Underappreciated sources of exposure include phthalates in...
Metabolism of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) by Human Hepatocytes in Vitro
BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame-retardant chemicals that accumulate in human tissues and are potential toxicants. Concentrations of PBDEs in human tissues have increased recently, and body burdens in the U.S. and Canadian...
Modification by Influenza on Health Effects of Air Pollution in Hong Kong
BACKGROUND: Both influenza viruses and air pollutants have been well documented as major hazards to human health, but few epidemiologic studies have assessed effect modification of influenza on health effects of ambient air pollutants. OBJECTIVES:...
Mortality among Former Love Canal Residents
BACKGROUND: The Love Canal is a rectangular 16-acre, 10-ft deep chemical waste landfill situated in a residential neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York. This seriously contaminated site first came to public attention in 1978. No studies have examined...
New Books
Artificial Intelligence Methods in the Environmental Sciences Sue Ellen Haupt, Antonello Pasini, Caren Marzban, eds. New York:Springer, 2009. 424 pp. ISBN: 978-1-4020-9118-6, $89.95 Biofuels: Securing the Planet's Future Energy Needs ...
New Insights into Thalidomide
Thalidomide, a drug banned in some countries for nearly 50 years because it causes malformations in embryonic limb tissue, may be on the verge of a dramatic, if carefully circumscribed, reinstatement for use against a range of diseases. Its return...
Occupational Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Risk of Breast Cancer
BACKGROUND: Despite the endocrine system activity exhibited by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), recent studies have shown little association between PCB exposure and breast cancer mortality. OBJECTIVES: To further evaluate the relation between...
Particulate Matter (PM) Research Centers (1999-2005) and the Role of Interdisciplinary Center-Based Research
OBJECTIVE: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency funded five academic centers in 1999 to address the uncertainties in exposure, toxicity, and health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) identified in the "Research Priorities for Airborne...
Phthalates in Prescription Drugs: Some Medications Deliver High Doses
Until recently, most of the concern surrounding the health risks of phthalates has focused on the use of these plasticizers in toys, personal care products, food packaging, and medical equipment such as intravenous tubing. A case report in 2004 raised...
Quantitative Approach for Incorporating Methylmercury Risks and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Benefits in Developing Species-Specific Fish Consumption Advice
BACKGROUND: Despite general agreement about the toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg), fish consumption advice remains controversial. Concerns have been raised that negative messages will steer people away from fish and omega-3 fatty acid (FA) benefits....
RDX Induces Aberrant Expression of microRNAs in Mouse Brain and Liver
BACKGROUND: Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play an important role in many biological and metabolic processes, their functions in animal response to environmental toxicant exposure are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: We used hexahydro-l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine...
Rising [CO.Sub.2], Climate Change, and Public Health: Exploring the Links to Plant Biology
BACKGROUND: Although the issue of anthropogenic climate forcing and public health is widely recognized, one fundamental aspect has remained underappreciated: the impact of climatic change on plant biology and the well-being of human systems. OBJECTIVES:...
State-of-the-Science Workshop Report: Issues and Approaches in Low-Dose-Response Extrapolation for Environmental Health Risk Assessment
Low-dose extrapolation model selection for evaluating the health effects of environmental pollutants is a key component of the risk assessment process. At a workshop held in Baltimore, Maryland, on 23-24 April 2007, sponsored by U.S. Environmental...
The Love Canal Story Is Not Finished
doi: 10.1289/ehp. 12310 In this issue, Gensburg et al. (2009) summarize the mortality experience of > 6,100 former residents of Love Canal, New York, over the period 1979-1996. Love Canal became a household word 30 years ago when outraged residents,...
The Oxidative Punch of Wildfires
Thick smoke routinely cloaks Southern California hills, highways, and neighborhoods during this region's autumn wildfire season, with drought contributing to worse fires than usual in the past two years. Wildfire emissions generate larger aerosols...
Trumped Treatment? BPA Blocks Effects of Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Drugs
Widespread human exposure to the chemical bisphenol A (BPA) has resulted from its use in a diverse array of consumer products. Research on the potential health effects of BPA has focused on the chemical's ability to mimic or block natural estrogen....
Will Warmer Soil Be as Fertile?
Growing concern about global climate change has focused increasing research attention on the carbon-regulating role played by soil. Collectively, the Earth's soils contain more than twice the amount of carbon found in the atmosphere. Scientists at...
World Trade Center Disaster and Asthma Type
doi: 10.1289/ehp.12384 As a practicing occupational health physician both in prevention and clinical care, I deeply appreciate the information provided by EHP. The article "Respiratory and Other Health Effects Reported in Children Exposed to the...
World Trade Center Disaster and Asthma Type: Thomas et Al. Respond
doi:10. 1289/ehp. 12384R We appreciate the question raised by Ziem regarding the type of asthma reported in children exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11) (Thomas et al. 2008). In our study we found an increase...