Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental health magazine.

Articles from Vol. 108, No. 8, August

Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in Three U.S. Counties
I used generalized additive models to analyze the time-series of daily total nonaccidental and cause-specific (cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) deaths over the period 1987-1995 in three major U.S. metropolitan...
Association between Chlorination of Drinking Water and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome in Taiwan
Chlorination has been the major means of disinfecting drinking water in Taiwan. The use of chlorinated water has been hypothesized to lead to several adverse birth outcomes, including low birth weight and preterm delivery. We performed a study to examine...
Both the Environment and Genes Are Important for Concentrations of Cadmium and Lead in Blood
Concentrations of cadmium and lead in blood (BCd and BPb, respectively) are traditionally used as biomarkers of environmental exposure. We estimated the influence of genetic factors on these markers in a cohort of 61 monozygotic and 103 dizygotic twin...
Cardiac Autonomic Control Mechanisms in Power-Frequency Magnetic Fields: A Multistudy Analysis
Heart rate variability (HRV), a noninvasive indicator of autonomic control of cardiac activity, is predictive of long-term cardiac morbidity and mortality. Epidemiologic research suggests that occupational exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields...
Chemical Characterization and Bioactivity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Non-Oxidative Thermal Treatment of Pyrene-Contaminated Soil at 250-1,000 [Degrees] C
In this paper we report yields, identities, and mutagenicities of products from heating a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated, Superfund-related synthetic soil matrix without exogenous oxygen. We heated batch samples of soil pretreated...
Concentrated Swine Feeding Operations and Public Health: A Review of Occupational and Community Health Effects
Recent industry changes in swine-management practices have resulted in a growing controversy surrounding the environmental and public health effects of modern swine production. The numerous wastes produced by intensive swine production not only pose...
Controlled Human Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether in Gasoline: Symptoms, Psychophysiologic and Neurobehavioral Responses of Self-Reported Sensitive Persons
The 1990 Clean Air Act mandated oxygenation of gasoline in regions where carbon monoxide standards were not met. To achieve this standard, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) was increased to 15% by volume during winter months in many locations. Subsequent...
Deaths out West: The Link to COPD
Lung diseases are becoming more prominent killers in the United States, particularly in the inland West. Many experts blame smoking, but some puzzling conflicts in the data suggest there may be other significant culprits. Deaths from chronic obstructive...
Farmworkers and Pesticides: Community-Based Research
In this paper we summarize the results of a workshop conducted to disseminate information about community-based research on the environmental health risks of exposure of farmworkers to pesticides. Community-based research is an approach that is advocated...
Fellowships, Grants, & Awards
Environmental Leadership Program Fellowship Application materials are now available for the Environmental Leadership Program (ELP) Fellowship class of 2001-2003. ELP is a nonprofit organization dedicated to training and supporting a new generation...
Genetic Susceptibility and Variability of Human Malformations
According to the National Vital Statistics Reports from the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for 1993-1995, congenital anomalies are the leading cause of death in children under the age of one,...
Genistein: Does It Prevent or Promote Breast Cancer?
Diet is estimated to contribute to approximately 50% of all newly diagnosed breast cancers. As such, a search for dietary factors differentially consumed among populations with increased breast cancer risk (e.g., Caucasians) compared to those with...
Inhalation of Radiation
Low Doses Yield High Risks Through studies of large groups exposed to radiation, epidemiologists try to quantify the relationship between doses received and resulting carcinogenic effects. Such information is used in the establishment of radiation...
Learning Disabilities Association-Sponsored Symposium on Chemical Hormone Impostors and Child Development
The Learning Disabilities Association (LDA) is a parent-run, all-volunteer organization started in 1960. It now numbers 50,000 members with affiliates in every state. The association is self-supported and undertakes advocacy initiatives in the areas...
Liver Angiosarcoma and Hemangiopericytoma after Occupational Exposure to Vinyl Chloride Monomer
Various malignant tumors of the liver, especially liver angiosarcoma, have been described after occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer. We present the case records and pathologic findings of two plastic industry workers who had been exposed...
Longitudinal Investigation of Exposure to Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead in Drinking Water
Numerous metals have received attention as both environmental contaminants and potential toxicologic hazards. For example, arsenic, cadmium, and lead are extensively distributed in the environment (1-3). Human activities have substantially altered...
Making Amends
Ecological Restoration in the United States It's a daunting task to build new interpretations of lost or degraded ecosystems. The great majority of restoration projects put a high priority on the biological requirements of endangered species, often...
Moving beyond MTBE
In March, prompted by rising concerns over groundwater contamination, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) called for a phaseout of methyl-tert-butyl ether, or MTBE, a chemical added to gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide (CO) pollution. The...
MTBE's Effects
A Sensitives Issue In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act, oxygenators such as MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) were added to fuels in concentrations up to 15% in order to reduce carbon monoxide pollution. It was only when acute health complaints--an...
New Drugs Engineered to Fight Asthma
Environmental allergens such as those associated with dust mites and cockroaches can trigger asthma attacks in predisposed individuals when they overwhelm the immunoglobulin E (IgE) cascade, a system believed to protect the body against parasitic invasion....
NTP May Test Cell Phones
At its 30 June 2000 meeting, the Executive Committee of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) approved a recommendation for the NTP to study radio frequency radiation emissions from wireless communication devices, which include cellular phones. The...
Quantitative Comparisons of in Vitro Assays for Estrogenic Activities
Substances that may act as estrogens show a broad chemical structural diversity. To thoroughly address the question of possible adverse estrogenic effects, reliable methods are needed to detect and identify the chemicals of these diverse structural...
Recycling Poultry Feathers: More Bang for the Cluck
What happens when an industry's by-product turns out to be as valuable as its primary products? The poultry industry may be about to find out. Scientists are exploring new methods for turning the industry's excess fluff into products ranging from notepaper...
Roundup Inhibits Steroidogenesis by Disrupting Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory (StAR) Protein Expression
Recent reports demonstrate that many currently used pesticides have the capacity to disrupt reproductive function in animals. Although this reproductive dysfunction is typically characterized by alterations in serum steroid hormone levels, disruptions...
Soy and Breast Cancer
Protection May Vary by Dose and Age Soy foods, rich in plant estrogens, have been embraced by American women seeking relief from menopause without the breast cancer risk associated with synthetic hormones. Because Asian women consume diets but have...
The Beat
Imprisoned Activist Wins Award Rodolfo Montiel Flores, founder of a campaign against commercial logging in the Sierra de Petatlan region of southwestern Mexico, is one of six recipients of the 2000 Goldman Environmental Prize. Montiel Flores's campaign,...
The Developing Role of Ecotoxicology in Industrial Ecology and Natural Capitalism
Achieving sustainable use of the planet will require a new paradigm regarding the relationship between human society and the environment and a concomitant paradigm on the responsibility of those now living to provide a quality life for their descendants...
The Effects of Internal Radiation Exposure on Cancer Mortality in Nuclear Workers at Rocketdyne/Atomics International
We examined the effects of chronic exposure to radionuclides, primarily uranium and mixed-fission products, on cancer mortality in a retrospective cohort study of workers enrolled in the radiation-monitoring program of a nuclear research and development...
The Kyoto Protocol Just a Lot of Hot Air?
The Kyoto Protocol on global warming is struggling to survive in a political climate hotter than the global climate it was intended to cool. Three years after being negotiated by 150 countries in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, this first attempt to...
Truth in Numbers
Along one wall of Joseph K. Haseman's office stands a floor-to-ceiling bookcase lined with identical powder blue books. These are Haseman's pride and joy: 500 technical reports representing rodent carcinogenicity assays conducted over the past 20 years...
Turning Wallboard out to Pasture
Building a 2,000-square-foot house leaves about a ton of gypsum wallboard waste from end cuts, window and door cutouts, and broken boards. In the United States, three million tons of gypsum wallboard waste is dumped in landfills each year. In addition...
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international response to our planet's changing climate. Serving as a means through which governments have opted to deal with the threat of global warming, the UNFCCC was adopted...
Use of Iodine for Water Disinfection: Iodine Toxicity and Maximum Recommended Dose
Iodine is an effective, simple, and cost-efficient means of water disinfection for people who vacation, travel, or work in areas where municipal water treatment is not reliable. However, there is considerable controversy about the maximum safe iodine...