Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental health magazine.

Articles from Vol. 110, No. 12, December

A Half Century Later: Recollections of the London Fog. (Guest Editorials)
It is important to recognize that all environmental events occur in some specific context, and this was particularly true of the 1952 London Disaster. During World War II London suffered 30,000 civilian casualties in the bombardments from the air,...
Air Pollution and Hospital Admissions for Ischemic Heart Disease in Persons with Congestive Heart Failure or Arrhythmia
We examined whether ischemic heart disease (IHD) hospital admissions were associated with air pollutants in those with and without secondary diagnoses of arrhythmia (ARR) or congestive heart failure (CHF). We assessed the occurrence of increased...
A Look Back at the London Smog of 1952 and the Half Century since. (Guest Editorials)
The modern field of environmental health owes much to the tragedy that befell Greater London, some 50 years ago this month. From 5 December through 9 December 1952 a heavy, motionless layer of smoky, dusty fumes from the region's million or more...
An Exposure Assessment Study of Ambient Heat Exposure in an Elderly Population in Baltimore, Maryland
Because of concern for heat. related mortality in vulnerable populations, particularly the elderly, practical epidemiologic methods are needed for the assessment of ambient heat exposure on individuals. We us a, personal monitor to measure body...
Assessment of Cleaning to Control Lead Dust in Homes of Children with Moderate Lead Poisoning: Treatment of Lead-Exposed Children Trial. (Children's Health)
In this article we describe the assessment and control of lead dust exposure in the Treatment of Lead-exposed Children (TLC) Trial, a clinical trial of the effects of oral chelation on developmental end points in urban children with moderately elevated...
Association of Genetic Polymorphisms in CYP2E1, MPO, NQO1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 Genes with Benzene Poisoning
Metabolic enzymes involved in benzene activation or detoxification, including NAD(P)H, quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CY2E1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), glutathione-S-transferase mu-1 (GSTM1), and glutathione-S-transferase theta-1...
Benefits of Better Air: Pinpointing Effects on Subpopulations. (Science Selections)
Reducing air pollution confers health benefits to the population as a whole, but researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health have found a way to predict benefits that may accrue to particular subpopulations, such as lower-income individuals...
"Bioassay Bashing Is Bad Science": Cohen's Response. (Correspondence)
Thank you for the opportunity to respond to the comments made by Johnson and Huff regarding the article assessing alternative assays, which appeared in the May 2002 issue of EHP (Schmidt 2002). In the comments that I made to Schmidt, it was not...
Bioassay Bashing Is Bad Science. (Correspondence)
The Spheres of Influence, "Assessing Assays" (Schmidt 2002), in the May 2002 issue of EHP criticizes the National Toxicology Program rodent bioassay (NTPRB) without discussing its importance in regulation and public health. The Spheres article (Schmidt...
"Bioassay Bashing Is Bad Science": MacDonald's Response. (Correspondence)
I appreciate the opportunity to respond to the letter from Johnson and Huff on the May 2002 Spheres of Influence, "Assessing Assays" (Schmidt 2002). Several points brought up by Johnson and Huff need to be clarified and some need to be challenged:...
Breakthroughs Put the Bite on Malaria. (Innovations)(Cover Story)
Half a century ago, a potent combination of antibiotics, vaccines, and public health measures seemed poised to win the ancient war against infectious disease. Even malaria appeared to be succumbing to a mix of insecticides, larvicides (used to kill...
Bringing Home More Than a Paycheck: Workers and Pesticides. (Science Selections)
Agricultural workers exposed to pesticides in the course of their labors may transport those chemicals to their residences, putting children in their homes at risk of potentially dangerous exposure to contaminants. This "take-home" exposure pathway...
Cadmium Cause and Effect: Looking at Renal Function. (Science Selections)
Exposure to high concentrations of cadmium, as in industrial settings, can lead to renal failure, but kidney problems can arise even from low-level cadmium exposures. In this month's issue, a group of scientists led by Ing-Marie Olsson of the Swedish...
Cadmium Exposure and Nephropathy in a 28-Year-Old Female Metals Worker. (Grand Rounds in Environmental Medicine)
A 28-year-old female presented for evaluation of left flank pain and polyuria after having been exposed to cadmium in the jewelry manufacturing industry for approximately 3 years. This patient possessed both elevated 24-hr urinary [[beta].sub.2]-microglobulin...
Cadmium in Blood and Urine-Impact of Sex, Age, Dietary Intake, Iron Status, and Former Smoking-Association of Renal Effects
We studied determinants of cadmium status and kidney function in nonsmoking men and women living on farms in southern Sweden. Median blood Cd (BCd) was 1.8 nmol/L (range, 0.38-18) and median urinary Cd (UCd) was 0.23 nmol/mmol creatinine (range,...
Calendar
2002 December 2-3 December, Mon-Tue. Spirometry Workshop. Birmingham, Alabama. Information: The University of Alabama at Birmingham, 530B Ryals Public Health Building, 1665 University Boulevard, Birmingham, AL 35294-0022 USA, 205-934-7178,...
Community Exposures to Airborne Agricultural Pesticides in California: Ranking of Inhalation Risks
We assessed inhalation risks to California communities from airborne agricultural pesticides by probability distribution analysis using ambient air data provided by the California Air Resources Board and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation....
Comparison of Techniques to Reduce Residential Lead Dust on Carpet and Upholstery: The New Jersey Assessment of Cleaning Techniques Trial
High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum cleaners are recommended by the U.S. Department of Homing and Urban Development for cleaning lead-contaminated house dust. We performed a randomized field study to determine whether a conventional...
Concentrated Ambient Air Particles Induce Vasoconstriction of Small Pulmonary Arteries in Rats
The objective of this study was to determine whether short-term exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) alter the morphology of small pulmonary arteries in normal rats and rats with chronic bronchitis (CB). Sprague-Dawley male rats were...
DDT and Its Metabolites Alter Gene Expression in Human Uterine Cell Lines through Estrogen Receptor-Independent Mechanisms
Endocrine-disrupting organochlorines, such as the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), bind to and activate estrogen receptors (ERs), thereby eliciting estrogen-like effects. Although ERs function predominantly through activation of...
EHP Toxicogenomics. (Ehpnet)
Toxicogenomics focuses on determining the role that genes play in biological responses to environmental toxicants and stressors. This new scientific discipline has sprung from the dramatic progress being made in numerous genome sequencing projects...
Environmental Genome Project: Focusing on Differences to Understand the Whole. (Spheres of Influence)
As the Environmental Genome Project (EGP) marks its fifth anniversary in 2003, there is some cause for celebration. Although it is premature to expect the project to have any impact on public health and policy yet, the EGP's science and technology...
Evaluation of Take-Home Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure among Agricultural Workers and Their Children. (Children's Health)
We analyzed organophosphorus pesticide exposure in 218 farm worker households in agricultural communities in Washington State to inverse the take-home pathway of pesticide exposure and to establish baseline exposure levels for a community intervention...
Exposure to the Herbicide Acetochlor Alters Thyroid Hormone-Dependent Gene Expression and Metamorphosis in Xenopus Laevis
A growing number of substances released into the environment disrupt normal endocrine mechanisms in a wide range of vertebrates. Little is known about the effects and identities of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that target thyroid hormone...
Expression of Hsp 27, Hsp 60, Hsc 70, and Hsp 70 Stress Response Genes in Cultured Human Urothelial Cells (UROtsa) Exposed to Lethal and Sublethal Concentrations of Sodium Arsenite
The stress response is one mechanism that the bladder urothelium could potentially employ to protect itself from cellular damage after exposure to arsenic and, in so doing, influence the shape of the dose-response curve at low concentrations of...
Fellowships, Grants, & Awards
Development of Watershed Classification Systems for Diagnosis of Biological Impairment in Watersheds and Their Receiving Waterbodies The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development is soliciting grant applications...
Fifty Years Later: Clearing the Air over the London Smog. (NIEHS News)
Between 5 December and 9 December 1952, one of the deadliest recorded episodes of urban smog occurred in London, England. New research indicates that as many as 12,000 people may have died as a result of the smog, and morality from respiratory illnesses...
Immunologic Effects of Dioxin: New Results from Seveso and Comparison with Other Studies
Animal studies indicate that the immune system is one of the most sensitive targets of the toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (TCDD). TCDD inhibits immunoglobulin secretion and decreases resistance to bacterial, viral, and parasitic...
Increases in Mouse Uterine Heat Shock Protein Levels Are a Sensitive and Specific Response to Uterotrophic Agents
There is increasing consensus that the uterotrophic estrogenicity assay should be coupled with other morphometric or molecular end points that might enhance its sensitivity. We have previously shown that bisphenol A (BPA), similarly to 17[beta]-estradiol...
Influence of Nutrient Intake on Blood Lead Levels of Young Children at Risk for Lead Poisoning. (Children's Health)
Although removal of lead paint hazards from at-risk houses remains the primary means of preventing elevated blood lead among young children, reduction of risk through nutritional factors has also been of interest. In this study we evaluated the...
Jumpstarting DNA Repair. (Genetic Research)
Every day, your DNA suffers damage--ultraviolet radiation, pollution, and cigarette smoke all take their toll. If unchecked, this damage can produce more extensive DNA lesions that result in tumors. Fortunately, DNA continuously repairs this damage....
Levels of Household Mold Associate with Respiratory Symptoms in the First Year of Life in a Cohort at Risk for Asthma. (Children's Health)
We assessed prospectively the risk of increased incidence of respiratory symptoms after exposure to particular fungal genera in a susceptible population--namely, infants (n = 880) at high risk for developing asthma. Days of wheeze or persistent...
New Books
Advances in DNA Sequence-Specific Agents, Volume 4 B. J. Chapman, ed. New York, NY: Elsevier Science, 2002, 162 pp. ISBN: 0444-51096-6, $95 Alternative Toxicological Methods for the New Millennium Sidney A. Katz Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2002,...
Olden Receives Environmental Public Health Awards. (NIEHS News)
The American Public Health Association (APHA), the world's oldest and largest organization of public health professionals, awarded its prestigious Calver Award to Kenneth Olden, director of the NIEHS and the National Toxicology Program. The award...
Profiles in Cancer. (Molecular Biology)
Historically, pathologists have struggled to distinguish many of the 50-plus sarcoma subtypes, which often look similar under a microscope. Misidentification could hamper treatment--an oncologist who doesn't realize a tumor is aggressive, for example,...
Rice and Rice Blast: New Bases for Comparison. (Agriculture)
In a landmark year for agricultural genomics, the sequences of two types of rice, Oryza sativa ssp. indica and O. sativa ssp. japonica, were reported in the 5 April 2002 issue of Science. Then, on 17 July 2002, came the announcement from the National...
Smoking Inflames Joints. (Environmental Disease)
After years of researching the effects that cigarette smoking has on rheumatoid arthritis, Derek Mattey has some advice, especially for women: Don't start smoking! In his most recent research, Mattey, a senior scientist at the Staffordshire Rheumatology...
The Importance of Population Susceptibility for Air Pollution Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Power Plants near Washington, DC
In evaluating risks from air pollution, health impact assessments often focus on the magnitude of the impacts without explicitly considering the distribution of impacts across subpopulations. In this study, we constructed a model to estimate the...
Toxicogenomics: An Emerging Discipline. (Focus)
Toxicology has come a long way since Paracelsus, a scientist during the late Middle Ages, first uttered the phrase "the dose makes the poison." With these words, Paracelsus unveiled the experimental basis of toxicology, a science that has recently...
Toxicogenomics Research Consortium Sails into Uncharted Waters. (NIEHS News)
In the current state of gene expression technology, there are various methodologies for assessing gene expression, making it difficult to compare and compile data across laboratories and investigators. To stretch research dollars and coordinate...
Two Committees Tackle Toxicogenomics. (NIEHS News)
The advent of toxicogenomics--an emerging scientific discipline that applies recent advances in genomics to the field of toxicology--promises to transform the way scientists use genetic information to study the effects of the environment on human...
Use of A-Bomb Survivor Studies as a Basis for Nuclear Worker Compensation. (Correspondence)
In the Spheres of Influence article in the July issue of EHP, Parascandola (2002) presented our concerns about the validity of extrapolating cancer risks from studies of A-bomb survivors to nuclear workers as a matter of differences in dose rate...