Physical Educator

Physical Educator is a publication covering issues in physical education and athletics. Founded in 1940, Phi Epsilon Kappa Fraternity publishes this journal 4 times a year.

Articles

Vol. 75, No. 3, Summer

Physical Fitness Test Administration Practices and Students' Cognitive Understanding of Physical Fitness
Physical fitness tests are administered regularly in the United States, and even without a national mandate, physical fitness testing is often required at the state, county, district, or school level (Cale & Harris, 2009; Morrow, Fulton, Brenner,...
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Systematic Observation of Formal Assessment of Students by Teachers (SOFAST)
Assessment for learning (also referred to as formative assessment and learning-oriented assessment; López-Pastor et al., 2013) in physical education is part of a larger educational and assessment movement toward promoting the use of standards-based assessment...
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A Clinically Rich Model in Physical Education Teacher Education
In 2009, the Obama administration initiated a stimulus package aimed to improve public education and the teaching profession (Darling-Hammond, 2010). At the same time, the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) commissioned a Blue...
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A Study of Conceptually Based Physical Education in Higher Education
National epidemiological data have indicated that the sharpest decline in physical activity (PA) and exercise participation occurs as adolescents age into young adulthood (Fischer & Bryant, 2008). According to a survey conducted by Calfas et al....
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Making After-School Physical Activity Programs a Success: Practical Lessons Learned
After-school physical activity (PA) programs for youth can develop and extend physical and mental skills necessary for health across the life span. This is important, as children and adolescents have become increasingly sedentary over the past few decades...
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Effects of a Classroom Walking Program on Physical Activity Accrual and On-Task Behavior
Since 1980, childhood obesity rates have tripled, with rates of obesity among 6- to 11-year-olds more than doubling from 7% to 17.5% and rates of obesity among teens quadrupling from 5% to 20.5% (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2014)....
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Relationship of Enjoyment, Perceived Competence, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness to Physical Activity Levels of Elementary School Children
The health status of children in the United States is facing a dilemma with the increasing rate of obesity. One of the goals of Healthy People 2010 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000) was to decrease childhood obesity, yet childhood...
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Assessing Student Knowledge and Incorporation of Smart Technology into Daily Physical Activity
The long-term health consequences of youth physical inactivity serve as a significant public health concern (Tremblay, LeBlanc, Kho, Saunders, & Larouche, 2011). As the prevalence of obesity in America has reached epidemic proportions, 33% of youth...
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Physical Activity Levels in Coed and Same-Sex Physical Education Using the Tactical Games Model
Regular participation in physical activity (PA) can provide adolescents immediate and long-term physical and psychological health benefits (Office of the Surgeon General 2010; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS], 2008a, 2008b). Despite...
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Moral Development in Sport Education: A Case Study of a Teaching-Oriented Preservice Teacher
The development of moral and sporting behavior and playing fairly are key overarching objectives of the Sport Education (SE) curriculum model (Siedentop, Hastie, & van der Mars, 2011). In addition, the model aims to develop enthusiastic and literate...
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Physical Education Gym Class Heroes, Try-Hards, and All-Stars: An Analysis of Facebook Comments
Quality physical education (PE) is associated with several positive benefits including improved motor skills (Fotrousi, Bagherly, & Ghasemi, 2012; P. Morgan et al., 2013; van Beurden et al., 2003), increased physical activity levels (Dale, Corbin,...
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Pedagogical Practices and Curriculum Considerations for a Study Away Course in Sport
The concept of study away, as opposed to international study abroad, acknowledges that students can have positive, career-altering experiences domestically. Students are increasingly seeking ways to enhance their overall competency and marketability....
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Vol. 75, No. 2, Spring

Greek Physical Education Teachers' Gender Biases in Learning and Teaching
One of the main objectives of education is to develop and cultivate younger individuals (International Primary Curriculum, 2005; National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2004). However, gender biases and stereotypes have often been observed...
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No Snow? No Problem! Ski Statutes Still Provide Legal Protection
Fakhouri v. Ober Gatlinburg, Inc. 821 F.3d 719 (6th Cir. 2016)In August 2012, Barbara Fakhouri visited Ober Gatlinburg, a ski resort located in eastern Tennessee to vacation with her family. Ms. Fakhouri used a wheelchair to ambulate. Despite the absence...
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Influence of Significant Others on High School Students' Expectancies of Success and Task Value in Physical Education
Physical education (PE) students' motivation to participate in class may come from numerous sources, including their own personal beliefs, perceptions of others' beliefs (social influence), past history, opportunities in which they have succeeded or...
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Effect of a Bicycling Unit on the Fitness of Middle School Students
Riding a bicycle can be a fun and invigorating experience for young and old. Throughout history, people have used bicycles as a method of transportation, a way to maintain fitness, and a means of spending quality time with partners or family (Barbour,...
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Perceptions of the Effect of Recess on Kindergartners
Children are experiencing more rigorous academic requirements beginning as early as kindergarten. Standardized tests have become a mainstream focus for K-12 institutions, and the entry-level requirements for a 5-year-old starting kindergarten have become...
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Gamesmanship Beliefs and Ethical Decision Making of College Athletes
Sportsmanship has been defined as "a concern and respect for the rules and officials, social conventions, the opponent, as well as one's full commitment to one's sport and the relative absence of a negative approach toward sport participation" (Vallerand,...
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An Examination of Physical Education Teachers' Perceptions of Utilizing Contemporary Music in the Classroom Environment: A Qualitative Approach
One of life's basic enjoyments is listening or hearing music within the context of a person's environment. Regardless of setting, music may be viewed as a constant, either in part or in whole, to the activity performed. Music as it relates to a person's...
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Perceptions of the Physical Education Doctoral Experience: Does Previous Teaching Experience Matter?
Using theoretical frameworks such as occupational socialization theory, researchers have investigated the experiences and perspectives of in-service physical education (PE) teachers working in school environments (e.g., Keay, 2006; Lux & McCullick,...
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The Status of Physical Activity Opportunities in Idaho Schools
A Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) is a multicomponent approach by which school districts and schools use all opportunities for students to be physically active, meet the nationally recommended 60 min/day of moderate to vigorous...
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Effectiveness of the Practice Style and Reciprocal Style of Teaching: A Meta-Analysis
The Spectrum of Teaching Styles (Mosston & Ashworth, 2008) is a pedagogical theory that provides a solid model for the systematic generation of research questions and for the organization of relevant results. According to Mosston and Ashworth (2008),...
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Vol. 75, No. 1, Winter

"Like, We Don't Want to Be PE Teachers:" Preservice Classroom Teachers' Beliefs about Physical Education and Willingness to Incorporate Physical Activity
Physical education (PE) should be taught by a state-licensed or state-certified specialist endorsed to teach the subject (SHAPE America, 2015). Studies comparing PE specialists and nonspecialists have shown that specialists are more likely to use effective...
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Coaches Beware of Participating with Players in Practice
Zachary B. Elias v. Kenneth Davis and Sterling Edwards; Ct. App. Mo., West. Dist. Div. Four; 2017 Mo. App. LEXIS 758; 8/8/17A Missouri court of appeals reversed a trial court and restored a plaintiff's claim that a head football coach and an assistant...
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Acute Exercise and Academic Achievement in High School Youth
Current research trends in the area of youth physical activity (PA) have highlighted the relationship between students who meet or exceed activity guidelines with improved academic results (Carlson et al., 2008). Numerous studies have established that...
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Comparing Sport Coaches' and Administrators' Perceptions of the National Standards for Sport Coaches
Sport coaching education in the United States is offered by many colleges and universities nationwide and nearly every sport governing body (e.g., U.S. Soccer, USA Baseball, the National Federation of State High School Associations) on a multitude of...
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In the Zone: An Investigation into Physical Activity during Recess on Traditional versus Zoned Playgrounds
Obesity is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001). Obese individuals have a higher prevalence of psychological disorders including...
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Physical Educators' Habitual Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy for Regular Exercise
In the United States, the national physical education (PE) teacher education standards (National Association for Sport and Physical Education [NASPE], 2008) and proposed revisions (Society of Health and Physical Educators [SHAPE America], 2016) emphasize,...
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Comparison of Strength Gains in Untrained College-Age Females Using Free Weights and FreeMotion Machines
Resistance training is an effective method for various populations to develop muscular strength. Although free weights are considered the preferred mode of strength training, the development of various weight machines has extended the possible application...
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Professional Development Activities and Support among Physical Education Teachers in the United States
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2015a) recommends coordinated school health as a strategy for improving students' health and learning in U.S. schools. In 2014, the CDC and ASCD (formerly the Association for Supervision and Curriculum...
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Exergaming: Comparison of On-Game and Off-Game Physical Activity in Elementary Physical Education
Physical activity (PA) contributes to a healthy lifestyle. Regular PA can provide numerous physical, social, and cognitive benefits to children such as improved muscular and cardiovascular health, increased health promotion knowledge and skills, disease...
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Tactical Games Model and Its Effects on Student Physical Activity and Gameplay Performance in Secondary Physical Education
Physical education (PE) is taught in many forms and variations. Some educators use curriculum or instructional models to aid instruction. Typically, these models are comprehensive and contain a theoretical foundation revolving around national standards....
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Vol. 74, No. 4, Winter

A Descriptive Analysis of the Application of PETE Standards
Physical education (PE) continues to be undervalued as a content area in American educational systems, and a long history of research indicates that PE is considered a marginalized subject in PK-12 school settings (Kahan & McKenzie, 2015; Lux &...
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Satisfaction of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder toward Physical Education Teachers
For all children, physical activity (PA) is an important element to promote and maintain health, fitness, and well-being. Developing a physically active lifestyle at an early age has been recommended to decrease the chances of developing health-related...
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A Document Analysis of Teacher Evaluation Systems Specific to Physical Education
Teacher evaluation serves two distinct purposes: (1) personnel decisions (e.g., tenure, termination) and (2) improvement of practice (i.e., professional development; Scriven, 1981). With the current push for more accountability of teachers in the classroom...
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Primal Fitness Curriculum: A Self-Determination Perspective
This study examined the motivated behaviors of sixth graders who participated in a fitness curriculum in a public school physical education (PE) class. Specifically, the students were taught from a fitness curriculum known as Primal Movement Fitness...
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In-Depth Analysis of a Teacher's Experience Implementing Sport Education in an After-School Context
Within physical education (PE) and sport pedagogy research, researchers have been paying attention to the increasing number of school-aged youth who are overweight and live sedentary lifestyles. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services...
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Administrators' Perceptions of Physical Education Teacher Evaluation
People's experiences allow them to build different perspectives or mental models of how things occur in the world (Dervin, 1998; Starbuck & Milliken, 1988). Moreover, these mental models may act as perceptual filters that help to determine what people...
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Physical Education Professionals Developing Life Skills in Children Affected by Poverty
Although physical education (PE) has been recognized to produce positive benefits in the development of the whole child, educational systems around the world challenge its significance (Ewing, Gano-Overway, Branta, & Seefeldt, 2002). Children from...
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Reflective Voices: Understanding University Students' Experiences of Urban High School Physical Education
Urban schools are becoming increasingly diverse, with 1 in 5 students being of immigrant background, and this ratio is expected to be 1 in 3 by 2040 (Carhill, Paez, & Suarez-Orosco, 2008; Hernandez, Denton, & Macartney, 2007). Hence, urban schools...
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Unfit to Teach
Social cognitive theory maintains the position that a portion of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions (Bandura, 1986). Physical education (PE) teachers in particular...
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Assessing the Legality of State Tournament Bans in Interscholastic Athletics
St. Patrick High School v. New Jersey Interscholastic Athletic Association, No. 10-cv-948 (DMC), 2010 WL 715826 (D. N.J. 2010)State high school athletic associations are tasked with facilitating equitable athletic opportunities for all member schools....
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Vol. 74, No. 3, Fall

High School Academics: Increasing the Standard
The challenges faced by student athletes are a growing concern in today's society. Beyond heightened academic requirements, student athletes face a multitude of tasks including weight training, practice, film review, and travel for competition. This...
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Home Owner Fails in Attempt to Gain Relief from Impact of Errant Baseballs
A Massachusetts appeals court affirmed the ruling of a trial court that a municipality in that state is protected by sovereign immunity in a case in which it was sued by a resident and his spouse who lived adjacent to a baseball diamond and claimed its...
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Using the Personalized System of Instruction to Differentiate Instruction in Fitness
Differentiated instruction (DI) is a term used to describe a theoretical model for teaching and research, an instructional model, and a philosophy (Tomlinson & Imbeau, 2010). This type of instruction has primarily been applied to the classroom-based...
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The Relationship between Secondary School Physical Education and Postsecondary Physical Activity
Only a small percentage of Canadian adults attain the physical activity (PA) recommendations of 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous activity (Colley et al., 2011a). Activity levels are equally poor for Canadian youth (Colley et al., 2011b) and youth...
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Using a 3-Day Physical Activity Recall as Homework to Increase Physical Activity in Rural Appalachian School Youth: A 3-Week Pilot Intervention Program
BackgroundSubstantial health benefits of regularly participating in physical activity (PA) in daily life and quality physical education (PE) classes have been well documented (Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2013; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services...
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Early Validation Evidence of a Canadian Practitioner-Based Assessment of Physical Literacy in Physical Education: Passport for Life
AbstractPhysical and Health Education Canada has developed and implemented a formative, criterion-referenced, and practitioner-based national (Canadian) online educational assessment and support resource called Passport for Life (PFL). It was developed...
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School Principals' Perceptions of and Expectations for Physical Education
Previous research on school principals' thoughts, perceptions, and views about physical education (PE) is limited. Much of the interpretive work conducted with young in-service PE teachers, however, suggests that the majority of principals have a poor...
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PE Central: A Possible Online Professional Development Tool
Traditional models of professional development (PD) are typically described in terms such as the following: "Professional development shall be comprised of professional learning opportunities aligned with student learning and educator development needs...
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Vol. 74, No. 2, 2017

Exploring the Effect of Gender and Disability on Gross Motor Performance in Kindergarten Children
Gross motor movement stems from large muscle groups and whole body movement and is essential for all locomotor movement such as walking and running and for object-control movements such as throwing and kicking. These skills are typically attained and...
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Effects of an Educational Gymnastics Course on the Motor Skills and Health-Related Fitness Components of PETE Students
Standard 2 of the National Initial Physical Education Teacher Education Standards indicates that physical education teacher candidates are physically educated individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary to demonstrate competent movement performance...
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Effects of Two Practice Style Formats on Fifth Grade Students' Motor Skill Performance and Task Engagement
The Spectrum of Teaching Styles (Mosston & Ashworth, 2008) is a pedagogical theory that provides a concrete model both for the systematic generation of research questions and as an organized repository for research results. Since 1970, numerous Spectrum...
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Motor Skill Assessment in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study
Motor skill development is important for the health and well-being of children of all abilities. Children who are able to perform fundamental motor skills such as running, jumping, galloping, throwing, kicking, or catching at high levels of proficiency...
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Beyond "Fun": The Real Need in Physical Education
With obesity rates and the prevalence of hypokinetic diseases exponentially increasing across all age groups (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2015a, 2015b), the need for physical education (PE) in schools is at an all-time high (Pate...
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High School Females' Emotions, Self-Efficacy, and Attributions during Soccer and Fitness Testing in Physical Education
School-age females tend to be less active, have lower and declining rates of enrollment in optional physical education (PE), and often develop more negative affiliations to PE in early adolescence compared to school-age males (Dishman et al., 2005; Lenskyj...
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Measuring Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Instructional Tasks for Teaching Elementary Content
Teachers' knowledge of instructional tasks and their ability to select developmentally appropriate tasks and sequence them in meaningful ways have been recognized as critical skills for teachers (Ball, Thames, & Phelps, 2008; Krauss et al., 2008;...
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Adoption of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: A Literature Review
P-12 physical education (PE) has evolved significantly over the last several decades, with one of the most important changes occurring recently with the inclusion of PE as a core academic subject (Society of Health and Physical Educators [SHAPE America],...
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Physical Activity Preferences of Overweight Fourth and Fifth Grade Students
The childhood obesity/overweight (o/o) epidemic has professionals across multiple disciplines seeking effective mitigation. Over 30% of USA children and adolescents between the ages of 2 and 19 carry unhealthy weight (Ogden, Carroll, Kit, & Flegal,...
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From Field Days to Olympic Gold: How Black Women Revitalized Track and Field in the United States
Today, women participate professionally and as amateurs in practically every major sport. As the skill level of competition has improved over the years, so has the public's view of women's sport. The public perception of women's sports has changed, but...
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Oops! Analysis of a Slip and Fall Hazard
City of Corpus Christi v. Ferguson2014 Tex. App. LEXIS 1299In December 2009, Janette Ferguson traveled to Corpus Christi, Texas, to participate in the Harbor Lights Festival boat parade. The day prior to the festival, Ferguson spent the night on her...
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Vol. 74, 2017

Model Athletic Handbook III
Bishop Lloyd Middle School (BLMS) has been in existence for over 40 years. I transferred to BLMS in 2007 and immediately began embracing the athletic endeavors of the students. An athletic handbook had not been in existence at BLMS or the other two middle...
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Model Athletic Assessment Tool
The goal is to create a program assessment for the Department of Athletics. Some philosophies of local, state, and national organizations were examined before beginning the development phase. Procedures for implementing the program assessment were established....
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Model High School Athletic Marketing Plan
Beacon Academy, like many schools in the Indonesia, has a small marketing team dedicated to recruiting students in a highly competitive market. Many competitors rely on their brand name and/or test results to recruit and retain students-Beacon has neither....
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Changing Conferences Debate
The schools with which Lloydminster Comprehensive High School (LCHS) is forced to compete within the Alberta Schools' Athletic Association (ASAA) are from major centers in Alberta with bigger population bases, which allows the schools more potential...
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Model High School Athletic Handbook I
PhilosophyMustang Athletics is committed to the mission statement of Meath Park Public School, which states:Our mission is to empower students to positively influence their own life paths and the lives of others. We will accomplish this by providing...
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Model High School Athletic Safety and Security Plan
PrefaceThis plan is designed for but not limited to the use of all athletic department/Thomas Stone personnel in caring for the injured, whether they are a student athlete, coach, administrator, or event spectator. Always refer to the main emergency...
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Model High School Concussion Protocol
The concussion protocol will benefit students, parents, coaches, teachers, schools and school divisions, and society in general. Concussions are an increasing concern, and educators must take initiative to educate about the seriousness of concussions,...
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Model High School Athletic Handbook II
Welcome!This handbook is designed to provide you with information concerning all opportunities offered by the Severna Park High School Athletic Program. While academics are the top priority, athletic participation is an integral part of a high school...
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Model for Planning an Athletic Facility
The Hong Kong International School (HKIS) is a private coeducational day school that serves students (Grades PK-12) who seek an American-style college preparatory education in a Christian setting. Located on the south side of Hong Kong Island on two...
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Model High School Athletic Transgender Policy
Saskatchewan High Schools Athletic Association (SHSAA) Transgender PolicyThis project was in response to the provincial government in Saskatchewan's request that the Saskatchewan High Schools Athletic Association (SHSAA) develop a policy for the inclusion...
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