Geographical

The monthly magazine of the Royal Geographical Society with the Institute of British Geographers. Covers a broad range of subjects related to geography in articles on people, places, cultures, adventure, responsible travel, history, science, and the envir

Articles from Vol. 76, No. 4, April

America's Greatest Voyage of Discovery: He Was the American Naval Officer in Charge of One of the Most Successful Exploration Expeditions of All Time. He Was Revered by Darwin and Seen as Cook's Equal. but in Spite of His Achievements, Charles Wilkes Has Fallen into Obscurity. Best-Selling Author Nathaniel Philbrick Tells His Tale
By almost any measure, America's first ocean-going voyage of discovery, the US Exploring Expedition (widely known as the US Ex Ex) of 1838, was an extraordinary success. After four years at sea, and having covered 140,000 kilometres, this six-vessel,...
Andorra
A unique history and breathtaking mountain vistas give Andorra an ambience and character all of its own. It may be best known as a tax haven and skiers' paradise, but visitors to this romantic principality are discovering a land of year-round opportunities...
Antony Wynn Is the Author of Persia in the Great Game, a Gripping Biography of RGS Gold Medallist Sir Percy Sykes, One of the Game's Most Controversial Players. He Discusses His Lifelong Passion for Horse-Riding in Iran with Chloe Scott-Moncrieff
What first drew you to Iran? It was in my blood. My grandfather learnt Persian in India--it was the language of administration in the north, so he introduced me to the culture as a child. I studied Persian and Turkish at Balliol before taking a...
... A Particularly Painful Rite of Passage: Having Supported Numerous Tribes of the Brazilian Amazon for Almost 20 Years, Sue Cunningham Was Given the Rare Chance to Photograph the Unique and Painful Initiation Rite of the Xicrin People, Where Youths Willingly Suffer an Ordeal-by-Wasp to Prove Themselves Fit to Become Warriors
"Aiieee!" The wail fills the clearing in the centre of the village. It is a woman's wail and it comes from one of the huts. As I approach, I can see her inside, comforting her son. He has weals on his face and upper body where a hundred vicious stings...
A Unique Cruising Experience: For More Than 50 Years, Swan Hellenic Has Been Perfecting the Art of Discovery Cruising and Has Developed a Unique Range of Cruises to Some of the World's Most Colourful Places
If you are looking for a holiday that combines exotic adventure with comfort and ease of travelling, then let Swan Hellenic welcome you aboard their exquisite new ship Minerva II. A cruise company with a 50-year heritage, Swan Hellenic owes its longevity...
Best Foot Forward: There's No Better Way of Travelling Than Walking If You Want to Gently Get to Know a Landscape and Gain a Sense of Personal Achievement. Geographical Introduces a Range of Inspired Walking-Holiday Options
Walks Worldwide A specialist walking company offering guided tours, supported inn dependent walks, backpacking treks, villa based trips, family adventures and mountaineering expeditions for individuals, couples and groups--all ages, all year round!...
Blue-Sky Thinking: Trans-Boundary Pollution Problems Can Only Be Tackled at an International Level, but Thus Far, Attempts at Achieving a Consensus Have Met with Failure
There can be no doubt about the local and national impact of urban air pollution. All the way from a small kitchen in Kenya to a city the size of London, the pollutants in our air are killing people. Very often the causes are easily identified and...
Cartographical Accuracy Comes to Africa: Detail of the North African Region from the Carte Catalane, 1375
The original of this map of the world was known to western Europeans in around 1375. Today, it is held in the Bibliotheque nationale de France in Paris. It has been attributed to either Cresques Abraham or other members of the same Catalan 'school'...
Cultural Extremes: Prepare to Be Inspired-And Surprised-As Rough Guide Authors Samantha Cook and Greg Ward Introduce Some of the Biggest, Longest and, of Course, Oldest Sites of Historical Interest from around the World
World's largest and longest man-made structure The Great Wall of China In 214 BC, Qin Shihuangdi, the first Qin emperor, ordered the construction of a vast wall across the northern reaches of his realm. Designed to deter invasions by barbarian nomads...
High-Flying Couple Sample Brazil's Water
BRAZIL A unique survey of the water quality of Brazil's main rivers, lakes and reservoirs is under way by husband and wife team Gerard and Margi Moss. The Waters of Brazil expedition, which began last autumn, involves collecting water samples from...
History's Dirty Secret: We Know What Causes Urban Air Pollution, and We Know How to Clean Up Our Cities, but Unfortunately There Just Isn't the Political Will to Make It Happen
Urban air pollution is nothing new--it has existed, in one form or another, for as long as people have lived together in substantial communities. But it was during the 19th century, with the rise of coal-powered industrial steam and increased domestic...
Living on the Front Line: Former BBC War Correspondent Martin Bell Talks to Chloe Scott-Moncrieff about Declining Democracy, Embedded Journalism and Why He Believes the War in the Balkans Led to the Attacks on the World Trade Centre
Sitting in a ramshackle three-bedroom house in Hampstead, with his tufty old cat Noushka on his lap, it's hard to imagine Martin Bell in an adrenaline-fuelled combat zone. Yet, to the portly 65-year-old, dodging shrapnel is old hat. During his career...
Louise Behr Worked as a Schoolteacher and Safari Guide in Kenya before Setting Up the Safari Company, Which Offers Tailor-Made Luxury Safaris. She Speaks to James Herron about the Safari Experience, Responsible Tourism and Frozen Martinis
What first took you to Africa? I always wanted to travel; I even started a travel fund when I was eight years old My career choice also focussed on developing skills that would allow me to travel so I went into teaching I taught in England for a...
Man with a Mission: To Many, Henry Morton Stanley Represents the Archetypal Victorian Explorer, but the Reality Was Quite Different. on the 100th Anniversary of Stanley's Death, Christian Amodeo Discovers the Truth Behind the Legend
As the lid came off the anonymous cardboard box we peered inside, and there it was--if one item could be said to symbolise Victorian exploration, it was this. In a dusty room at the Royal Geographical Society (with IBG), its walls lined with shelves...
Moving in Time: Not Only Has Transportation and Its Development Furnished Much of the Content of History, It Has Also Helped to Determine How It Is Conceived, Says Justin Wintle
Around 70,000 years ago, our ancestors began migrating out of Africa. Overrunning the Middle East, then the Indian subcontinent, they were established in China by 60,000 BC. Ten to fifteen thousand years later, they penetrated western Europe; later...
Plenty More Fish in the Sea?
EDITORIAL What is the matter with cod? This was the question on which one of Britain's most distinguished biological oceanographers, Dr Martin Angel of the Southampton Oceanography Centre, shed some light at a recent Society lecture. Dr Angel hooked...
Protecting Nature's Laboratory: The Galapagos Islands Are One of Those 'Must-See, Trip-of-a-Lifetime' Destinations. Dominic Hamilton Travels to the Archipelago to Find out What Effect the Increasing Numbers of Visitors Seeking That Life-Changing Experience Are Having on the Islands' Delicate Ecosystems
Talk to anyone who's been to the Galapagos Islands and chances are that at some point they'll say, "You just have to go." This Noah's Ark of volcanic isles stranded in the Pacific is one of those destinations that inspires superlatives and sits atop...
Sir Lawrence Dudley Stamp: (1898-1966) the Chief Architect of a Pioneering Land-Use Survey of Britain, Dudley Stamp Was Also the Author of Several Popular Geography Textbooks
What was his background? Born in Catford, southeast London, Lawrence Dudley Stamp was admitted to King's College London at the age of 15 and gained a first in geology. He was commissioned into the Royal Engineers and served in France during the...
South Africa: The Long Walk Continues: As South Africa Celebrates Ten Years of Democracy, Andrew Brackenbury Asks How Close to Nelson Mandela's Original Vision Is the Nation Today and Ponders the Challenges Ahead
"Out of the experience of an extraordinary human disaster that lasted too long must be born a society of which all humanity will be proud." Nelson Mandela's typically eloquent words, spoken in 1994 as he accepted the South African presidency, conveyed...
Step out in Style: Deck Yourself out in the Most Stylish and Technologically Advanced Kit and You'll Be Walking Tall When You Next Head off the Beaten Track. in the Second Part of Our Walking Special, Outdoor-Equipment Expert Clive Tully Presents His Up-to-the-Minute Selection of the Best Products for Hikers Currently on the Market
FOOTWARE Granger's NT Odour Eliminator It's a fair bet that by the end of a long day on the trail, the insides of your boots and socks will have begun to emit an odour that is less than pleasant. Granger's NT Odour Eliminator spray works by chemically...
Talking the Walk: Malcolm Tait, Editor of the Walker's Companion, Explains Why the Essence of Walking Is Actually All in the Mind, before Introducing His Pick of the Literary Extracts and Snippets of Advice He Unearthed While Compiling the Companion
We might only have one word for snow, but when it comes to the most popular of pastimes, the British boast a lexicon. We stroll, amble and saunter; we wander, stride and meander. We hoof it, step out and put our best foot forward; we trudge, shuffle...
The Killer Inside: While the West Tries to Work out How to Clean Up the Air in Its Cities, More and More People in the Developing World Are Being Killed by Indoor Air Pollution
The level of pollution that hit London in the early 1950s was so great that it caused a change in the law and saw the beginning of a new wave of environmental awareness. But even at their peak, pollution levels during this brief episode weren't much...
Time Travel: Don't Just Travel, Time Travel. Take Your Pick from Geographical's Selection of Companies Offering Tours of the World's Most Impressive Historical Sights
TrekAmerica's Footlose Experience the majesty and mystery of the American southwest. Travelling in small groups of up to 13 people, TrekAmerica and Footloose offer a wide range of adventure-camping, lodging, walking and biking fours in this fascinating...
To Which Continent Does the Indonesian Province of Papua Belong?
To which continent does the Indonesian province of Papua belong? R Wesley, London ANSWER: Papua (formerly known as Irian Jaya) is in Asia, together with the rest of the Indonesian archipelago. But Papua is only half an island, the rest of which...
Urban Air Pollution
Over recent years, Britain's city dwellers have begun to experience an amazing improvement in the quality of the air they breathe. Gone are the all-engulfing smogs that left a trail of death and misery. Gone is the overpowering stench of raw sewage....
Wandering on the Waves: Sebastian Hope Travels to the Waters off the Malay Peninsula in an Effort to Document the Rapidly Disappearing Lifestyle of Indonesia's Semi-Nomadic Sea Gypsies
A glance at a map of South Asia reveals more blue than green, more sea than land. Land-dwellers tend to look on the sea as divisive, as separating one place from another and making each different. The islands that curve in a double arc away from the...
Weatherwatch with Helen Willetts: April What's the Difference between Rain and Showers? and What Does It Have to Do with the Simpsons and Cheesemaking? BBC Meteorologist Helen Willetts Reveals All in Her Monthly Column
If you've heard the saying "April showers bring May flowers", you might think that April is a wet month. but the showers actually refer to the type of rain, not the amount. In fact. April is one of the UK's driest months--in London. for example, the...
Where Is the True Source of the Nile?
Where is the true source of the Nile? C Furnish, Norwich ANSWER: Although only 15 per cent of the water that flows into Lake Nasser comes from the White Nile branch, it's the position of its source that qualifies the Nile for the title of longest...
Which Is the World's Longest Undersea Mountain Range?
Which is the world's longest undersea mountain range? D Macdonald, Penrith ANSWER: The Mid-Atlantic Ridge isn't just the world's longest chain of undersea mountains, it's longer that any of those found on land. And it isn't alone--the ridge that...
Young Geographer the Year 2004: This Year's Question: Seventy per Cent of the World's Surface Is Covered with Water. How Should We Best Use the Seas and the Oceans?
The Geographical Young Geographer of the Year competition was launched in 1999 to promote the study of geography and to encourage students to carry out independent research alongside their usual studies. The aim is to provide students with an interesting,...
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