Geographical

The monthly magazine of the Royal Geographical Society with the Institute of British Geographers. Covers a broad range of subjects related to geography in articles on people, places, cultures, adventure, responsible travel, history, science, and the envir

Articles from Vol. 77, No. 3, March

Apocalypse Not: The Media Has Recently Been Discussing a Drop in Birth Rates around the World. So Has the Global Population Explosion Finally Come to an End?
Apocalyptic visions of a near future crippled by over-population were part of the 1970s mindset. Unprecedented growth rates in the developing world and books such as Paul Ehrlich's The Population Bomb fuelled these fears--by the 21st century, Ehrlich...
Ashley Leiman Is the Director of the Orangutan Foundation's UK Branch. It's 20 Years since the Foundation Began Taking Visitors to Tanjung Puting National Park (TPNP), Kalimantan, Indonesia. Charlie Furniss Talks to Her about These Study Tours
How did you come to set up the UK branch of the Orangutan Foundation? I lived in Hong Kong during the 1970s and was always interested in tropical Asian ecology. I was involved in conservation there with the Conservation Society and the Natural History...
Cholera: Medical Advice from Jason Gibbs, Head Pharmacist at Nomad Travel Stores and Health Clinics
Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which produces a toxin that causes the release of fluid into the gut. It's usually spread via water contaminated with infected faecal matter or via infected food--especially shellfish or other seafood--as...
Decline and Fall? after Years of Frightening Headlines about the Runaway Growth of the World's Population, Does the 'Birth Dearth' Mean We Face a Population Implosion?
While the 20th century was dominated by paranoid predictions of an over-crowded world, fear of population decline isn't new. During the Depression of the 1930s, books such as Fnmce Faces Depopulation by Joseph Sphengler evoked the spectre of economic...
Essential Gear: In the First of a New Series, Paul Deegan Says to Ignore Colours and Features When Buying a New Rucksack and Instead Concentrate on Finding the Perfect Fit
For more than a decade, I made ends meet between expeditions by working in outdoor stores. During that time, thousands of customers came into the shops to buy their first pieces of outdoor equipment. And it didn't matter whether they were budding backpackers,...
Geographical Young Geographer of the Year 2005
Is the UK in 2005 overpopulated? Every year, we ask young geographers from schools across the UK to research and write about a topic that affects them and their families. The winners receive a great selection of prizes, including books, maps and...
Global Disaster Paves Way for Global Thinking: In the Wake of the Indian Ocean Tsunami, Disaster Expert and Geophysicist Bill McGuire Explains Why Future Disaster Management Must Place a Greater Emphasis on Preparedness as Well as Response
The resilience of the human condition, and the speed with which memories are erased following even the most devastating natural catastrophe, are truly astonishing. Little more than 120 years ago, in 1883, Indonesia's coastlines were battered by waves...
Global Population
We are now in the middle of the key century of global demographic change, 1950-2050," writes esteemed demographer John Caldwell. Our economic, environmental and political futures have never seemed more dependent on the ebb and flow of world populations....
Go on, Give Some 'Botho'
'Mma Ramotswe had a detective agency in Africa, at the foot of Kgale Hill. These were its assets; a tiny white van, two desks, two chairs, a telephone and an old typewriter. Then there was a teapot, in which Mma Ramotswe--the only lady private detective...
How Much of Finland Is Land?
ANSWER: Finland's territorial boundaries encompass an area of 338,144 square kilometres, placing it just behind Germany in the list of Europe's largest countries. But Finland has the world's highest number of lakes--about 190,000 of them--covering...
How Well Is the UK Doing on Cutting C[O.Sub.2] Emissions?
ANSWER: When it came to power in 1997, the Labour government set a target of reducing C[O.sub.2] emissions by more than 20 per cent below 1990 levels by 2010. However, by the end of last year, it had become clear that this self imposed target--which...
Immanuel Kant: (1724-1804) Better Known for His Contributions to Philosophy, Immanuel Kant Also Played an Important Role in the Development of Geographical Thought in the 19th and 20th Centuries
What was his background? Immanuel Kant was born in Konigsberg, East Prussia, on 22 April 1724. The son of a craftsman, he spent eight years at the Collegium Fridericianum, where his parents hoped he would study theology. However, his inclination...
In Search of the Muria Code: In the Heart of India Lives a Tribe Whose Unusual Sexual Customs Caused a Sensation When First Introduced to the West by a Renegade British Missionary. More Than 50 Years on, the Muria's Way of Life Is Threatened as Never Before
The popular image of India is of a nation bursting at the seams, a teeming mass of humanity that's still growing. So it may come as a surprise to learn that in central India there's a remote region, Bastar, where some two thirds of the inhabitants...
Is It True That Cattle Contribute to Global Warming?
ANSWER: When it comes to global warming, most attention is given to the rise in levels of carbon dioxide, which acts like a blanket, trapping heat in the atmosphere. But C[O.sub.2] isn't the only gas with this property. Along with nitrous oxide--better...
John Keay Has Written More Than a Dozen Books of Historical Geography on a Wide Variety of Topics. Here He Discusses His New Book, Mad about the Mekong, a History of the Exploration of Indo-China, with Geographical Editor Nick Smith
Why, when we know so much about the exploration of Africa, do we know so little about the exploration of Indo-China? That's because the British never really took much interest in it. Africa was on the way to India, the Nile had been a puzzle since...
Rocks of Ages: We All Know Geology Has Shaped the Earth's Surface. but, as a New BBC TV Series Reveals, around the Mediterranean It Has Also Changed the Course of Human History
Perched atop a hill overlooking the azure waters of the Gulf of Corinth, geologist Dr lain Stewart was armed only with a Mars bar and two books. He was explaining how the ancient Greek city of Heliki, thought by some to have inspired Plato's Atlantis,...
Sahara
A LAND BEYOND IMAGINATION To many of us, the Sahara Desert conjures up images of desolation and isolation, of seas of sand and parched empty landscapes. However, as Dutch photographer Frans Lemmens reveals in his new book, Sahara, it's a land full...
Satellite Meteorology
What are the different types of weather satellite? Two types of satellite provide weather data: geostationary and polar-orbiting. Geostationary satellites orbit above the equator at a height of 35,780 kilometres. Their orbits are synchronous with...
Ten of the Best
[1] for price Wynnster Ecuador 70+ 50 [pounds sterling]/70 litres + 10-litre extension/2.4 kilos An excellent-value trekking backpack Also available in 60 litre and 80 litre versions [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] [2] for women Osprey Luna...
The Country That Doesn't Exist: Moldova's Rebel Province, the Self-Declared Republic of Transdniestria, Is a Land That Time Forgot and a Country the World Refuses to Recognise. but with Illegal Arms Flowing across Its Borders, the Race Is on to Break This Political Impasse
Tucked away in a quiet corner of Eastern Europe is a country that has three names but doesn't exist. It's said that no man is an island and, legally speaking, the same might be said for a nation. Without the acceptance and recognition of its peers,...
The Exceeding Small Apple: Map of New Amsterdam, New Netherlands (1660)
Founded in 1624 by Dutch settlers, New Amsterdam was the capital of the larger colony of New Netherlands, located on an island off the northeast coast of North America. The frontier town was a pretty wild place, plagued by confrontations with hostile...
The Fertile Century: In 1900, There Were 1.6 Billion People on Earth, Now There Are 6.4 Billion. So What Were the Combustible Conditions That Fuelled the Population Explosion?
"It's a boy!" screamed the headlines celebrating the birth of China's 1.3 billionth person on 6 January this year. While China's latest star made the news, elsewhere that day, as on any other, 200,000 new arrivals went unnoticed by all but their joyful...
The Global Climate Change Blame Game
EDITORIAL The subject of global climate change never fails to spark a heated debate, and here at the Society it's an ever-present topic, be it during our Annual Conference and lectures or as the focus of a research expedition. New studies are continually...
The Legacy of Empire
India took its place at the heart of the British Empire in 1858 when the East India Company handed control of the subcontinent to the British government. Over the next 90 years, its soldiers protected British interests from Abyssinia to Hong Kong,...
The Swedish Ice Man of Siberia: He's Completed Expeditions in the Americas, East Africa and across Asia. He's Been Honoured by the Explorer's Club and Is a Household Name in His Native Sweden, but Few in the UK Have Heard of Explorer Mikael Strandberg. Chloe-Scott Moncrieff Caught Up with Him on the Eve of His Attempt to Walk across Siberia in the Dark
Mikael Strandberg is feeling disappointed. For the past four months, the Swedish explorer and his wife Titti have been living in a tent behind their house in the empty mountainous landscape of northern Sweden. But it hasn't been cold enough: a mere...
Using Photography to Focus Attention on the Plight of Lithuania's Pine Forests
At the end of March this year, the Society will begin the process of picking a geographical photographer to be awarded the John Radford Award for Geographical Photography. The award supports aspiring young geographical photojournalists who wish to...
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