Geographical

The monthly magazine of the Royal Geographical Society with the Institute of British Geographers. Covers a broad range of subjects related to geography in articles on people, places, cultures, adventure, responsible travel, history, science, and the envir

Articles from Vol. 77, No. 8, August

20,000 Flashes under the Sea: In the First of a New Series about Field Photography Techniques for the Geographer, Keith Wilson Discusses That Most Alien and Technically Difficult of Environments: Underwater
The principles for attaining good photographs underwater are the same as those for the land-based (topside) photographer. However, there is one very significant difference--because water is 800 times denser than air, light starts scattering as soon...
2005 Responsible Tourism Awards: Nominate a Responsible Tourism Winner and a Trip Exploring the Wonders of China Could Be Yours
Many of the stunning holiday destinations that we visit are in fragile environments and are coming under increasing pressure from tourism. This is your chance to help by placing your nominations for the second Responsible Tourism Awards, which celebrate...
A Glimpse of a Greener Future: Celebrating Science and Civilisation, the First Expo of the 21st Century Not Only Exhibits the Latest Environmentally Friendly Technologies, It Puts Them into Practice. Jo Sargent Reports from Expo 2005 in Aichi, Japan
These days, Japan is renowned as the source of all that is technologically innovative. So it came as no great surprise to discover, as I walked around the site of Expo 2005 in Aichi, Japan, a week before it opened, a 3-D screen that doesn't require...
A Killer Innovation
Everyone remembers a good teacher. For many of us, myself included, our interest in the wider world began in school, the result of an inspiring teacher with the ability to enthuse pupils with a lifetime love of the study of people and places. Teachers...
Ashes and Snow
Ashes and Snow Nomadic Museum Hudson River Park's Pier 54 West 13th Street New York City, USA A highly unusual touring retrospective, Ashes and Snow is the culmination of 13 years of work by Canadian-born filmmaker, artist and photographer Gregory...
A Short-Lived Experiment: Map of the Coast of Panama (1715)
This single-page map lacks title, author, scale, printer, publisher and date. But because it was part of a book, some of these gaps can be filled in. In fact, reading the top lines on the opposite page, and looking down the "Plenary Explication thereof",...
Chloe Scott-Moncrieff Inconversation with a Tom Avery
Tom Avery, at 29, is the youngest Briton to have reached Both poles. He and his team recently retraced Robert Peary's 1909 expedition, in the process becoming the fastest to reach the North Pole on foot, even beating Peary's disputed 37-day record...
Cities in Dust: Archaeological Investigations Are Revealing the Extraordinary 4,000-Year Story of the Little-Known Oasis of Merv, Located in a Remote Desert in Central Asia
Tucked away in a remote corner of Central Asia, surrounded by one of the harshest desert terrains on Earth, is an extraordinary inland river delta that once sustained a spectacular civilisation. While the ancient riverine cultures of the Nile and its...
Expedition Essentials: The Middle of an Expedition Isn't Exactly the Best Time to Discover That You're Missing a Vital Piece of Kit. This Month, Paul Deegan Discusses Those Items You'll Want to Make Sure You Never Leave Behind
If you've started reading this article thinking, "Hang on a minute, isn't all equipment taken on an expedition pretty much essential?" then I would be the first to agree with you. After all, on a mountaineering expedition, no boots equals no ascent....
Hartley Travers Ferrar: (1879-1932) the Geologist on the National Antarctic Expedition, Hartley Ferrar Carried out Important Geological Surveys in Antarctica, Egypt and New Zealand
What was his background? Hartley ("Harry") Travers Ferrar was born in Dalkey, Ireland, on 28 January 1879, the son of John Edgar Ferrar, a bank official, and Mary Holmes (nee Hartley) Ferrar. Much of his early childhood was spent in South Africa,...
Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke: Medical Advice from Jason Gibbs, Head Pharmacist at Nomad Travel Stores and Health Clinics
These two conditions are both caused by overloading the body's cooling mechanisms, either by poor acclimatisation or overexertion. Heat stroke is a dangerous condition that can result n delirium coma and even death. The individual may have stopped...
Into the Liquid World: From Its Origins in Improvised Homemade Gear and Underwater Military Espionage to Its Position Today as a Worldwide Leisure and Tourism Industry, Scuba Diving Has Certainly Come a Long Way. Tim Ecott Explores the History of Our Mission to Conquer the Underwater World
In June 1943, the overnight express train from Paris delivered a large wooden crate to the station at the Mediterranean port of Bandol. The crate was addressed to a young French naval officer by the name of Jacques Cousteau, who later wrote: "No children...
Just Deserts: Internationally Renowned German Photographer and Lecturer Michael Martin Has Been Awarded a Royal Geographical Society Medal for His Work Documenting Deserts. It's a Fitting Tribute to Martin's 25 Years of Desert Travel, His Unquenchable Passion for Deserts and Their People and His Work Raising the Public's Awareness of Them
While desert nomads find their way using the stars, Michael Martin unwittingly found the desert by way of the stars. As a teenager growing up in Augsburg in southern Germany, Martin was a keen astronomical photographer. "My big dream was to go to the...
Land of Golden Plenty
SOUTH AFRICA Until the 1860s, the British considered Southern Africa as something of an imperial backwater. Its only value lay in the strategic position of a naval base on the Cape. That was the case until the discovery of first diamonds and then gold...
Life on the Line
Since George W Bush included North Korea in his 'axis of evil', the stand-off between the North and South has returned to the spotlight, not least because of the North's nuclear weapons programme. The origins of the division of the Korean peninsula...
Looking into the Future Via the Past
At the Society's AGM in June, Professor Sir Nicholas Shackleton of the University of Cambridge was awarded the Founder's Medal in recognition of his longstanding contribution to geography and Earth science, specifically in the field of palaeoclimatology....
Paper: What Ever Happened to the Paperless Office? This Utopian Dream Seems to Have Been Buried beneath a Mountain of Email Print Outs. Andrew Brackenbury Asks What Went Wrong
Wherever you're reading this, pause for a moment and consider what's in your hands. These words have been printed on glossy sheets of one of the building blocks of modern society--paper. Now look around you--from the magazine you're holding to your...
Pulp Affliction: Although the Paper Industry Claims That It's Moving towards True Sustainability, Most Environmental Organisations Remain Unconvinced
After decades of standing accused of 'ancient forest crime' by environmental NGOs, the paper industry has started to fight back, trumpeting its green credentials. "Our raw material is renewable and recyclable," says Kathy Bradley of the Confederation...
Quizzical: This Month, Chris Edwards Tackles Temperature Extremes, the Size of Belgium, Categorising Nations' Development Status, the Hydrogen Bombs Dropped on Japan and the Number of People Who Speak Scottish Gaelic
Which part of the world experiences the greatest extremes of temperature? M Thompson, Coventry In Verkhoyhansk, Sibera, when it gets hot, it gets pretty hot. But when it gets cold, it gets really cold. Over the course of a year, the temperature...
RGS-IBG Medal and Award Winners 2005: On 6 June, at the Annual General Meeting of the Royal Geographical Society (with IBG), the Following People Received Medals and Awards for Their Varied and Groundbreaking Services to Geography and Related Fields
Founder's Medal Professor Sir Nicholas Shackleton For research on Quaternary palaeoclimatology Professor Sir Nicholas Shackleton of the University of Cambridge was presented with the Society's Founder's Medal for more than 45 years' exceptional...
Summer Heatwaves: Weatherwatch with BBC Weather Forecaster Helen Willetts
What is an 'inversion'? When weather people talk about an inversion they are referring to a temperature inversion. During a long period of summer anticyclonic (high pressure) weather, the air sinks and an inversion forms. This means that instead...
Ten of the Best: These Days, There Are a Million and One Gadgets Vying for the Attention of the Serious Expeditioner. Here We've Assembled a Selection of Some of Our Personal Favourites
1 penknife Victorinox Climber Stay Glow 20 [pounds sterling]/90 grams Features innovative fluorescent handles to help you find it in the depths of your rucksack [ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] 2 multitool Leatherman Charge XTi 115 [pounds...
The ePaper Revolution: The Next Few Years Could See New Technologies Reducing Our Dependence on Paper. but How Close Are We to the Reality of the Paperless Office?
Depending on your viewpoint, the phrase 'paperless office' is either one of the most premature or redundant of our times. Between 1995 and 2000--the height of the dot-com boom--Canada, the world's largest manufacturer of office printing paper, almost...
The Historical Paper Trail: From Its Origins in the East, Paper Was Historically the Catalyst in Scientific and Artistic Achievement the World over and Still Underpins Our Lives Today
According to an ancient Chinese manuscript, in 105 AD, Ts'ai Lun, an official in the imperial court of China, reported the invention of a remarkable new material to his emperor. Over the next two millennia, this extraordinary substance--paper--would...
The Smoke-Breathing Mountains of Hawaii: The Volcanism That Created the Hawaiian Islands Continues to Put on Some of the World's Most Amazing Geological Displays. Chartered Geographer Andrew Lee Travels to the Big Island to Witness Their Power
Pele Honuamea is Hawaii's great mother goddess of fire. Legend has it that she sits within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater, stirring a great volcanic cauldron, the contents of which she's ready to tip out at any time. Meanwhile, Poli'ahu, the snow goddess,...
Thinking Big in the South African Bush: With an Astonishing Variety of Habitats and Flora and Fauna, Baviaanskloof Protected Area Is One of the World's Most Diverse Regions. Charles Leftwich Reports on an Innovative Attempt to Incorporate the Area into an Extensive New 'Mega-Reserve'
Standing atop one of the highest points in the Kouga range, all I can see in every direction are the convoluted curves, gulfs and crowns of mountains. There is no sound, only the sense of the movement of cloud as two patterns interplay, those of height...
Travel Insurance: A Question of Cover: Absurd as It May Seem, It's Reckoned That One Third of Britons Travelling Overseas for Whatever Reason Are Doing So without Adequate (or in Some Cases Any) Insurance Cover. This Is Just an Accident Waiting to Happen
Jennifer White (not her real name), a 27-year-old retail manager from London, was trekking in the rainforest in Guatemala with friends when Things Went Badly Wrong. Her group had had a great day. "We'd climbed the side of a mountain where we had brilliant...
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