Journal of Leisure Research

A journal presenting research in sports, recreation, and outdoor life for the academic audience.

Articles from Vol. 32, No. 1, Winter

Anatomy of the Academy: Dissecting the Past, Resecting the Future
KEYWORDS: Leisure studies, higher education, accreditation, academic program development Offered the opportunity to write about whatever topic moves me, I decided my millennial issue is to examine the place of leisure studies in higher education....
Counting on Recreation Use Data: A Call for Long-Term Monitoring
KEYWORDS: Visitation data, sampling, visitor days What is the Use of Use Data? While the theory of recreation benefits and satisfaction has legitimately moved a long way from simple body counts to focus on visitor outcomes, experiences and the...
Downshifting: Regaining the Essence of Leisure
KEYWORDS: Leisure behavior, leisure meaning, commodification, consumerism "The parameters for success are changing in the United States and Europe by the followers of the downshifting movement, a movement that attempts to give back the pleasure...
Echoes of Leisure: Questions, Challenges, and Potentials
Gregorian calendars, love of linear and progressive forms, Christian beliefs, and fascination with "new" beginnings all intermix to form the concept of millenium. Calendars emerging from Tibetan, Islamic, Hawaiian, Mayan, and other traditions mark...
Exploring Gender
KEYWORDS: Gender, institutionalized gender bias, resource-based recreation and tourism My sudden urge to write about gender issues is unexpected. Gender is not a topic I have studied or considered with any degree of thoroughness. In fact, for most...
False Dichotomies, Intellectual Diversity, and the "Either/Or" World: Leisure Research in Transition
KEYWORDS: Research methods, paradigms, world views, postmodernism, dichotomies In 1982, Naisbitt described "megatrends" in society. The trends and the examples that struck me the most related to the movement from "either/or to multiple option" (p....
If Leisure Research Is to Matter II
KEYWORDS: Future of research, practitioner-research relationships, research priorities My journey as a member of the research community began some 30 years ago. Influenced by Drs. Mike Ellis and Doyle Bishop, my doctoral study days were filled with...
If Our Research Is Relevant, Why Is Nobody Listening?
KEYWORDS: Research relevance, intellectual isolation, social needs, social change The Problem In 1994 the American Leisure Research Symposium held a forum on the relevance of leisure research. All three speakers at the forum strongly defended...
Is Leisure Theory Needed for Leisure Studies?
KEYWORDS: Leisure theory, social exchange Studying leisure has been the subject of interest by a wide range of scholars representing a wide range of disciplines. In so doing, these scholars have largely used leisure instrumentally as means to test...
JLR: A Means to Many Ends
KEYWORDS: Inception, goal incongruity, practitioners, researchers The ink was barely dry on the first issue of the Journal of Leisure Research when I arrived in the fall of 1969 at NRPA's Washington, D.C. headquarters at 1700 Pennsylvania Avenue...
Knowing Something about Leisure: Help or Hindrance?
KEYWORDS: Leisure, practice, accreditation, certification, critical perspective Jeanne and Sprenet folks Can any of you provide me with, or inform me about, any research or documentation (or even written policies and standards) that indicates...
Leisure, Crime and Cops: Exploring A Paradox of Our Civility
KEYWORDS: Crime, enforcement, leisure, parks, police, recreation What makes the year 2000 special is the moment it creates to "take stock" of our civilization as it is now and how it might become. While it is tempting to conclude that we are more...
Leisure, Diversity and Social Justice
KEYWORDS: Social justice, diversity, institutional inequity, marginalization Issues of justice and injustice have only been tangentially addressed in the leisure literature. The "social-justice paradigm" may provide an important conceptual umbrella...
Leisure Experience and Identity: What Difference Does Difference Make?
KEYWORDS: Leisure experience, ideology, identity, critical theory The evidence of experience then becomes evidence for the fact of difference, rather than a way of explaining how difference is established, how it operates, how and in what ways it...
Looking beyond the Invisible: Can Research on Leisure of Ethnic and Racial Minorities Contribute to Leisure Theory?
KEYWORDS: Ethnicity, race, leisure theory Jupiter's moons are invisible to the naked eye and therefore can have no influence on the earth, and therefore would be useless, and therefore do not exist. Francisco Sizzi Professor of Astronomy,...
Marketing Public Leisure Services: Some (Temporarily) Pessimistic Perspectives from an Unrepentant Optimist
My chosen academic specialty is the marketing of leisure services, especially in public and not-for-profit contexts. This pronouncement might come as a surprise, nay, even a disappointment to people who know that, as an adolescent, my heros included...
Meeting the Challenge of Wild Land Recreation Management: Demographic Shifts and Social Inequality [*]
KEYWORDS: National parks, wilderness, public lands, recreation, white, minority Americans are visiting the national parks, forests, wilderness, and recreation areas (hereinafter wild lands) in record numbers. For instance, 238.6 million people visited...
Moving beyond the Romantic Biases in Natural Areas Recreation
KEYWORDS: Ethics, leisure, post-modern, restoration A distinctly American Romantic view of nature emerged during the 1800's. It was motivated by concerns that core American values were being degraded by the replacement of the wild frontier with...
Obligation as an Aspect of Leisure Experience
KEYWORDS: Obligation, leisure, semi-leisure, anti-leisure "Obligation" is a frequently used but lamentably under-conceptualized idea in leisure studies. Its importance there stems from two facts: leisure activities occasionally or frequently have...
Our Reform Heritage: Recovering the Vision of Community Leisure Service
KEYWORDS: Leisure, history, community, culture, reform Given the rare opportunity to write unencumbered by the usual scholarly constraints, I take this as an occasion for reflection, asking questions that are probably good for all of us to ask from...
Philosophy of Science and Leisure Research
KEYWORDS: Leisure research, philosophy of science, research principles Ten years before the millennium, the Journal of Leisure Research published a special issue devoted to a discussion of the philosophy of science. While acknowledging those in...
Race and the Pursuit of Happiness
KEYWORDS: Race, African American, leisure, discrimination Race still matters in the United States of America. Yet, too many people would like to believe that race no longer separates this nation in any meaningful way. Hence, the real public "shock"...
Recreation Specialization Revisited
KEYWORDS: Specialization, recreation, conflicts, management The essence of specialization theory, first published in The Journal of Leisure Research in 1977 (Bryan) and subsequently expanded in a 1979 monograph (Bryan), is that outdoor recreation...
Reflections on the Future of Leisure Studies
KEYWORDS: Leisure studies, NRPA, postmodernism I am troubled by the future of leisure studies. Some days it bothers me less than other days, but I remain generally disturbed. I see things happening in the academic environment, in the social science...
Reorganizing the Chicago Park District: From Patronage to Professional Status
KEYWORDS: Park district hiring staff training, political patronage, recreation programming The purpose of this article is to understand why many large, urban park districts have failed to provide high-quality recreation programming, taught by trained...
Revisiting and Revising Recreation Conflict Research
KEYWORDS: Conflict, diversity, outdoor recreation, organization Since conflict emerged as a recognizable outdoor recreation problem in the 1960s, some argue that its conceptualization, modeling and management have been sufficiently addressed such...
Riding the Winds of Change
KEYWORDS: Play, recreation, leisure, longevity, spirituality, ecopsychology, games. Winds of change from the four directions, in response to the rhythm of the times, are moving us with considerable speed into the 21st century. As they move us along...
Self-Identity, Modernity, and the Rational Actor in Leisure Research
KEYWORDS: Leisure behavior, leisure identities, postmodernism, self-identity, structuration Fundamental to leisure research is the notion that people's recreation is a medium for personal enhancement and self-development (Murphy, 1974; Kelly, 1990),...
Social Groups and Parks: Leisure Behavior in Time and Space
KEYWORDS: Social group, recreation place, visitation patterns, time and space I have been asked to comment on a reoccurring theme in sociological research on leisure behavior in parks. I will do so focusing on research on social groups in time and...
The 1960s: A Pivotal Decade for Recreation Research
KEYWORDS: The 1960s, research agenda, Profession evolution For the most part prior to Of Time, Work and Leisure (DeGrazia, 1962) recreation was defined as an activity which took place during one's leisure (free time). Proponents cited its value...
The Death of the Olmstedian Vision of Public Space
KEYWORDS: Privatization, capitalism, democracy, privatized efficiency "Privatization: An End to the Parks and Recreation Profession as we Know it," the title of an article by Gary Lane (1997), a practitioner in the public sector, is a plea for and...
The Future of Leisure Studies
KEYWORDS: Leisure studies, recreation and park management, social sciences, universities The creation of knowledge within universities suffers from both over specialization and parallel lines of inquiry and information dissemination, which never...
The Neglect of Relaxation
KEYWORDS: Relaxation, disengagement The Atlantic Monthly used to feature an entertaining section on historical encounters between some of the significant figures of a particular period-- Frederick the Great and Voltaire, Sarah Bernhardt and Thomas...
The "Real World" and the Irrelevance of Theory-Based Research
KEYWORDS: Leisure research, current issues, theory Selecting one issue as crucial to leisure research at the millennium is somewhat like playing tennis with only a serve. We need a full-court game in research as well as in the sport. Nevertheless,...
The Role of Social Marketing in Leisure and Recreation Management
Consistent with the "social welfare" philosophy of park and recreation, much work has been done to identify the benefits of leisure and incorporate them into recreation management. The benefits of leisure constitute all aspects of human existence;...
Tic, Toc, the Game Is Locked and Nobody Else Can Play!
KEYWORDS: Institutional discrimination, non-participation, disenfranchised groups, leisure constraints It is hard to imagine any leisure researcher who is not aware of the vast number of studies published or presented in recent years that pertain...
What Do We Know? Not Much: The State of Leisure and Aging Research
KEYWORDS: Aging, gerontology, research, collaboration The conclusion was clear and without equivocation: "Cardiac rehabilitation exercise training consistently improves objective measures of exercise tolerance, without significant cardiovascular...
Will Research on Leisure Constraints Still Be Relevant in the Twenty-First Century?
KEYWORDS: Leisure constraints The origins of research on leisure constraints can be traced back for at least a century, but it is only in the last two to three decades that social scientists in North America have conducted systematic research that...