American Studies International

American Studies International is a magazine specializing in History topics.

Articles

Vol. 42, No. 2-3, June-October

Senior Editor's Note
This is the last issue of American Studies International to be published under my supervision. George Washington University will cease to publish American Studies International with Volume 42. Negotiations are underway with the Mid-America American...
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Heritage Tourism: Where Public and History Don't Always Meet
Recently I visited a Caribbean island. It is an island-state much like many others in this region of the world: Its beaches are white, its people are black, its skies and waters are blue, its mountains are green, and its birds and fishes and flowers...
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Apologies for Atrocities: Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of World War II's End in the United States and Japan
The aftermath of the recent terrorist attack on Washington, D.C. and New York demonstrated the heroism of fire fighters, police officers, emergency medical personnel as well as volunteer workers. The tragedy also revealed how the imagery of World War...
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Slavery and the Contest for National Heritage in the United States and the Netherlands
In the past few years, important history projects on slavery in the United States and the Netherlands have focused public attention on what is for each society a difficult and painful past. This article, by two scholars, one American and one Dutch,...
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History in New Worlds: Surveys and Results in the United States and Australia
The most significant news of this study is that we have interested, active, and thoughtful audiences for what we want to talk about. The deeper challenge is finding out how we can talk to--and especially with--those audiences. History professionals...
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Capturing the Public Imagination: The Social and Professional Place of Public History
The purpose of history is to find one's place in the region of which you are a part. (1) Where We Live: Professionalism and Identity Public history is a neglected and often denigrated region. Its borders are mobile and permeable. Its population...
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Historians as Managers of the Nation's Cultural Heritage
How the United States manages its cultural heritage is unique in the world. The preservation "system" developed initially from studies of approaches and methodologies from abroad. During the 1960s, American preservationists studied preservation systems...
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Exhibition as Dance: An Exercise in Creative Partnering
I have often described our work, especially the exhibitions on historical themes, as a cross between a scholarly book and a Broadway show, two creative realms that combine my love of history with my love of theatre. The "scholarly book" part is...
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The American Moving Image Diaspora: The Archeology of US Movies in International Archives
In February 2004 the program of the "Pelikula at Lipunan" film festival in Manila, Philippines included the premiere of the restored 35mm version of Zamboanga, an American independent feature film originally produced on location in Mindanao in 1936...
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The Kokopelli Conundrum: Lessons Learned from Teaching Native American Students
Fort Lewis College in Durango, Colorado is a public liberal arts college with moderate admissions standards whose goal is to help students achieve academic success. Our students come from all over the United States including urban areas like Denver...
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Playing to Strength: Teaching Public History at the Turn of the 21st-Century
Historians in the United States are at present deeply engaged in a conversation about the nature and future of graduate education, and the place of public history in it. Over the past several years, sustained institutional energies have been directed...
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The New Americanist Intervention into the Canon
Influenced by contemporary critical theory, criticism of nineteenth-century American literature has undergone a profound change in recent years. Few topics have been as great a subject of debate as the nature and construction of the canon. The term...
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Redefining American Spaces: The City, the Lland, the Body, and History: The Fulbright American Studies Institute, Northern Illinois University, July 1-August 12, 2002
By considering the work of such critics as Edward W. Said, Gloria Anzaldua, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Doreen Massey, Edward W. Soja, and Michel Foucault, one can perceive that the concepts of space and geography, alongside history, have increasingly become...
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Announcements
Conferences The program committee of the North American Labor History Conference invites proposals for panels and papers on the theme, "Class, Work and Revolution," for our twenty-fifth annual meeting to be held October 21-23, 2004. Since the seventeenth...
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Vol. 42, No. 1, February

White Evil: Peronist Argentina in the US Popular Imagination since 1955
There is something singularly pathetic about a national dream based on an aging one-time dictator and the memory of a woman who has been dead for 20 years. Time, November 27, 1972 Long Live Germany! Long Live Argentina! Long Live Austria! ...
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American Studies in India, a Personal Memoir
Introduction From time to time during the past 20 years, ASI has published personal accounts by American professors of their experiences with various academic exchanges. (See for example, "The Fulbright Program: Retrospect and Prospect," special...
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The Representation of the USA in EFL Textbooks in the Soviet Union and Russia
Introduction As is widely known, totalitarian states attempt to filter political information in such a way that, in the main, the population receives exposure to sources, materials, and presentations that serve and reinforce the goals and ideals...
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Book Notes
Books reviewed in this issue: Curt McConnell, Coast to Coast by Automobile: The Pioneering Trips, 18991908 (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2000). Reviewed by Donna Andrews. Curt McConnell, The Record Setting Trips: By Auto from Coast to...
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Vol. 41, No. 3, October

A Case for American Studies: The Michael Fay Affair, Singapore-US Relations, and American Studies in Singapore
Introduction Although diplomatic and trade links between Singapore and the United States reach back to the early 19th century, official relations date only to Singapore's founding as an independent nation in 1965. Since then, Singapore and the United...
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Stratified Whiteness and Sexualized Chinese Immigrants in San Francisco: The Report of the California Special Committee on Chinese Immigration in 1876
In view of all this we inquire, what are the benefits conferred upon us by this isolated and degraded class? The only one ever suggested was "cheap labor." But if cheap labor means white famine it is a fearful benefit.... If cheap labor means servile...
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Robert Laxalt: A Basque Pioneer in the American Literary West (1)
"I am not a Basque scholar or even a Basque writer; I am just a Basque who writes." In this humble way Robert Laxalt (1923-2001), son of Basque immigrants and one of Nevada's most renowned authors, defined himself whenever I asked him about his literary...
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Rights of the Sea: Toward a Global Understanding
The sea, in much higher degree than landmasses, is an easily sharable resource, and though it may represent the world's last frontier, frontiers also exist within the sea itself. The problem faced by maritime international law in defining fair, equitable,...
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Funding Opportunities
Winterthur Museum, Garden, and Library 2004-2005 Research Fellowship Program. Residential fellowships available for scholars pursuing topics in American history and art, decorative arts, material culture, and design. NEH senior scholar grants, Lois...
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Conferences
The 28th Annual American Studies Seminar sponsored by the American Embassy and American Studies Association of Turkey will be held November 12-15, 2003 at Hotel Samara in Bodrum, Turkey. The theme of the conference is "Challenging America: Similitude...
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Prizes
Modern Language Association Prize for Independent Scholars. Competition in 2004 for Books Published in 2003. To recognize and further encourage the achievements and contributions of independent scholars, the Modern Language Association invites authors...
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February

Crossing Borders, Shifting Paradigms: The Perspectives of American Studies /Cultural Studies in Eastern Europe
American Studies, Western Theories, Local Practices American Studies in the United States has become a major forum for the advancement of cultural studies (CS), an interdisciplinary practice that is experiencing an unprecedented international boom...
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The Twain Shall Meet: American Studies in Post-Soviet Russia
I find pleasure in following the outlines of these strange shadows lying across those distant lives; and much would I give to find out the name and business of that anonymous American ("a citizen of the American States" as Gogol puts it) who ... sat...
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American Literature in the Context of Russian-American Studies: Research and Curricula
In the now distant 1960s, long before perestroika gave rise to serious changes in Russian attitudes towards teaching American Studies at Russian universities, my postgraduate supervisor and the founder of the chair of foreign literatures at Kuban State...
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The Reception of American Transcendentalism in Russia
After several decades of suppression and neglect, the first appraisal of American transcendentalism in Russian scholarship appeared as a part of a general review of American literature in 1947. The publication of Volume I of The History of American...
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The Ideologem of Loss in Chekhov and James
My experience as a university teacher of comparative literature and American Studies at a Russian provincial university makes me think that scholars in Eastern Europe do approach American Studies differently than their colleagues in the West, because...
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Communication "In the Higher Sense": Young Thoreau and Young Dostoyevski
"Not till we have lost the world, do we begin to find ourselves ..." H.D. Thoreau (1) Conversation, as linguists tell us, is a verbal exchange between two or more parties that involves turn taking, a common context and a common code. The activity...
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The Holy Fool in Russian and American Culture: A Dialogue
Preface: The following dialogue could be considered a methodological as well as formal experiment in comparative cultural analysis. It is the result of a cross-cultural, transnational discussion and exchange between two scholars and professors of American...
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Translations: The (Re)situation of Post-Soviet American Studies
Last year my university sponsored a collaborative exhibition of contemporary art by Russian and U.S. artists associated with the International Hand Print Workshop. According to the founder of the workshop, the goal of the exhibition was to address...
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Between Language and Discourse: Russian Americanists in Search of Definition
For obvious reasons there is a huge difference between American Studies as practiced inside the United States and American Studies as practiced in Russia. The mode of reflection on what is America "for us here" depends on the definition of "us" as...
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Transnational American Studies and the Limits to Collaboration: Implications Drawn from the Russian-U.S. Relationship. (1)
One of my most vivid memories of elementary school in the 1950s involves the Soviet Union. I grew up in the suburbs of Washington, D.C., and we were constantly practicing for air raid drills. We knew that "THEY" were doubtlessly targeting the U.S....
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"Horrified and Proud:" Cold War Ethics in American and Russian Acts of Remembering
In this essay I argue that the personal recollections of American and Russian intellectuals can be considered as a means of moral reflection on their emotional and cognitive investments in their national, local, and professional identifies during the...
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"Who Is to Blame? What Is to Be Done?": Joint Ventures with Russian Americanists in the 1990s
At a recent colloquium on the New American History, my graduate students vigorously debated a statement from one of their texts. Ann Douglas writes, "America is the only nation to exercise the dubious privilege of never seeing the world, or itself...
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Axiosphere: The Linguistic Representation of Value Concepts in American and Russian Cultures
While acknowledging the significance of all cognitive processes in comprehending the structure of culture, I have chosen "axiosphere" as the subject of this paper. The philosophical definition of axiosphere given by M. S. Kagan is methodologically...
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American Programs and Their Effectiveness on Russian Television
In recent years, many television programs that are virtual copies of Western--primarily American--programs have appeared on Russian television. The first wave of format adaptation on Russian television occurred right after the fall of the "Iron Curtain."...
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American Literary Studies in Ukraine: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
For obvious political reasons, Ukraine has not figured very prominently in the cultural encyclopedia of the average American. A good characterization of this deficit is found in Walker Percy's Thanatos Syndrome, when someone asks a rhetorical question,...
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Conference Notes
Russian Association for English Studies September 17-19, 2002 Vladimir Putin and Alexander Lukashenko, the presidents of Russia and Belarus, have not been on the best of terms since disagreeing last summer about a proposed union between their two...
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Vol. 40, No. 3, October

Introduction
As promised, this issue is the second on the topic of American Indians, dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague Wilcomb Washburn of the Smithsonian Institution and George Washington University, who died February 1, 1997. Wid's range...
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"Use the Club of White Man's Wisdom in Defence of Our Customs": White Schools and Native Agendas
On a balmy October evening in 1879, two chiefs of the Absentee Shawnee tribe visited their nineteen-year-old kinsman, Gay-nwaw-piah-si-ka. (1) Their silent arrival, "in single file, from the west," alerted the young man to the gravity of the occasion....
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Depictions of White Children in Captivity Narratives
Ever since I started doing research on early British America, I had the intuition that the secret of early and even later settlers' culture lay in the conversations they held during the evening neighborhood bees by the fireplace. However I could...
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Construction of the Mythic Indian in Mainstream Media and the Demystification of the Stereotype by American Indian Artists
The representations of American Indians from the perspective of the White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) and within the context of historical discourse, convey native peoples as mythical/legendary beings rather than flesh and blood ordinary humans...
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Conference Notes: German Association for American Studies May 21-24, 2002
The forty-ninth annual conference of the German Association for American Studies was held in Lutherstadt Wittenberg, May 21-24, 2002. The theme, Colonial Encounters, with its focus on the early years of the American experience as viewed primarily...
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Announcements
The Department of American Culture and Literature at Bilkent University invites applications for a faculty position, beginning in the spring semester of 2003. The selected candidate has to be ready to commence duties in January of 2003. Applications...
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Vol. 40, No. 2, June

Introduction
This issue of ASI is special in several ways. It is the first of two issues, June and October, focusing on a single topic--Native American history and culture--bringing together some of the most distinguished scholars of American Indian life. It...
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Politics, Performance and Indian Identity
On February 6, 1904, the students at Hampton Institute put on their annual commemoration of Indian Citizenship Day, timed to coincide with the anniversary of the signing of the General Allotment Act, or Dawes Act, of 1887. The act provided for the...
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Culture Change in the Making: Some Examples of How a Catholic Missionary Changed Micmac Religion
I. The Micmac Indians The Micmac, in their contemporary spelling mi'kmaq, are the northeastern most Algonquian speakers in North America. Their own name elnu means the people; mi'kmaq translates into allies. The culture and economy of the Micmac...
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The Heritage of Stories: A Tradition of Wisdom
Stories go to work on you like arrows. Stories make you live right. Stories make you replace yourself (1) The aim of this paper is to discuss the ways in which the early inhabitants of the New World applied their scientific knowledge while...
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As Long as the Waters Shall Run: The "Obstructed Water" Metaphor in American Indian Fiction
"Hmmmm," says Coyote. "All this water imagery must mean something." (Thomas King 1993, 293). An Indian and his grandson take a walk into the mountains to see a dam built across a sacred valley. The old man cannot believe what he has heard--that...
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Vol. 40, No. 1, February

Against All Odds: Vira B. Whitehouse and Rosika Schwimmer in Switzerland, 1918
During the past quarter century much has been written about the role of women, especially American women, in World War I. These studies cover an amazing variety of topics ranging from the role of women in the American Expeditionary Forces and in the...
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Gender, Race and Civilization: The Competition between American Power Laundries and Chinese Steam Laundries, 1870s - 1920s
Laundry is women's territory. In many parts of the world, the laundry is still done as it has been for many thousands of years. Women haul their baskets to the nearest river or carry water inside, pound the clothes clean on the rocks or washboards,...
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Books Received
Aldama, Arturo J. Disrupting Savagism: Intersecting Chicana/o Mexican Immigrant, and Native American Struggles for Self-Representation. Durham: Duke UP, 2001. Bailey, F.G. Strategems and Spoils: A Social Anthropology of Politics. Boulder: Westview...
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Conferences, Calls and Other Announcements. (Announcements)
March 22-23, 2002, Middle Atlantic American Studies Association, Annual Meeting. Holiday Inn-Independence Mall, Philadelphia, PA. Contact amstd@psu.edu. April 18-20, 2002, Pacific Northwest ASA: "Affirmative Actions." West Coast Grand Hotel at the...
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From Bohemianism to Radicalism: The Art of the Liberator
"For my part, I find it difficult to understand the man, calling himself an artist, who is satisfied with things as they are. The beauty and wonder (old, old words) of the external world forever compel and attract; but I find it impossible to be content...
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Vol. 39, No. 3, October

Global Media and the Ambiguities of Resonant Americanism
Time Life International was started in 1945 because the U.S. was literally the only power in the world capable of restoring some of the continuities of civilization ... It is this towering uniqueness of power and influence [of the U.S.] that is ......
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"Some Enchanted Evening"-Tuning in the Amazing Fifties, Switching off the Elusive Decade
Sandwiched between the dramatic Forties and the traumatic Sixties, the Fifties have suffered, as many things in history (and life) do, from uncomfortable neighborhood. This decade retained an aura of domesticity that poorly compared with the emotional...
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The Ills of Limitation and the Evils of Disorientation: Perceptions of Post-WWII American Literature in the USSR/Russia
The title came to me when I was preparing a presentation for the California American Studies Association (CASA) Conference in Santa Barbara. The location of the conference provided a perfect metaphor for the dramatic change in the picture of American...
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Netherlands American Studies Association Conference: June 6-8, 2001. (Conference Notes)
The twenty-fourth annual conference of the Netherlands American Studies Association (NASA) took place June 6-8, 2001, at the Roosevelt Study Center in Middelburg. Some forty participants from North America, Britain, Holland, Spain, Germany, and Austria...
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Announcements
Fellowships: Winterthur Museum, Garden and Library announces its 2002-2003 Research Fellowship Competition. Approximately twenty-five residential fellowships will be awarded and a broad range of short term fellowships, at stipends from $1500 to...
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Vol. 39, No. 2, June

The (Re)Shaping of Latino/Chicano Ethnicity through the Inclusion/Exclusion of Undocumented Immigrants: The Case of LULAC's Ethno-Politics
Introduction For the last three decades the debate on undocumented immigration in the United States has been a battleground on which a number of social issues have converged. Undocumented immigration emerged as a "social problem" precisely at the...
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The Contributions of Beaumont to Democracy in America: His Analysis of Race Relations and Slavery
Alexis de Tocqueville has become famous for his analysis of the foundations of American democracy. Tocqueville's close friend, Gustave de Beaumont, on the other hand, who accompanied him during his journey to the United States in 1831-1832 fell into...
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"Dancing Mothers" the Chautauqua Movement in Twentieth-Century American Popular Culture
The chautauqua movement in the United States traces its origins to 1874, when Protestant ministers John Heyl Vincent and Lewis Miller started a summer training program for Sunday-school teachers at Lake Chautauqua in the state of New York. Vincent...
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"Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War" the Novelist as Poet: A Study in the Dramatic Poetry of Herman Melville
Introduction Battle-Pieces' place in the context of Herman Melville's work and nineteenth century American poetry, especially Civil War poetry, has long been both seriously undervalued and uncertain. The main reason for this uncertainty is the work's...
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Vol. 39, No. 1, February

Vision and Revision: International Histories of American Art
I. The Old Quest for Newness No Europeans felt about the Old in quite the same way Americans came to, and none believed as intensely in the New. Both are massively present in the story of American art, a story that begins weakly and derivatively...
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Imperial Designs of Political Philanthropy: A Study of Antebellum Accounts of Italian Liberalism
On 12 December 1848, Nicholas Browne, American consul in Rome, wrote a long dispatch to secretary of state James Buchanan in which he reported on recent political events in Italy, from the progressive reforms that had been implemented throughout the...
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Corporate Hand in Academic Glove: The New Management's Struggle for Academic Recognition-The Case of the Harvard Group in the 1920's
In 1909, John Jay Chapman, a professor at Harvard, issued a very harsh indictment of American universities: "As the boss has been the tool of businessmen in politics, so the college president has been his agent in education."(1) Thorstein Veblen made...
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American Feminist Theory
Abstract: This essay is a survey of some issues that have invigorated theoretical contests among American feminists, especially in the last two decades. I review these debates and suggest that American feminist writers are contemplating deep and...
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Vol. 38, No. 3, October

From the Editors
We are pleased to publish this special issue of American Studies International, "Global Feminisms, American Studies," and to thank our guest editors Doris Friedensohn (a member of ASI's Editorial Board), Jean Pfaelzer and Deborah Rosenfelt for their...
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Intersections: Global Feminisms, American Studies
This issue of American Studies International grows out of the work of the American Studies Association International Women's Task Force, established in 1996 to foster a global network of scholars working at the intersections of American Studies and...
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American Studies and Feminist Scholarship in Portugal
In Portugal, as in many other countries, it is possible to see a distinct link between the academic development of Women's Studies and the study of the United States. The link, having a lot to do with the interdisciplinary philosophy underlying both...
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The Center Can(not) Hold: American Studies and Global Feminism
Turning and turning in the widening gyre, The falcon cannot hear the falconer; Things fall apart; the center cannot hold.... William Buffer Yeats, "The Second Coming" What is a woman of color, a professor in Women's Studies and a scholar of Asian...
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American Feminism and Pedagogy: The Case of Poland
Until we can see what we are, we cannot take steps to become what we should be. Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Women and Economics Since I will be talking here about recent disciplinary developments in the Polish academy, I should begin by clarifying...
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Double Texts: Representing America and Discussing Women's Issues in Indonesia(*)
Against The Iron Cage of Stereotypes Scholars working in American studies and women's studies in Indonesia face similar constraints. The most challenging one is the general suspicion toward an ideological framework that these studies might carry....
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American Studies and Gender Issues in an International Classroom
Any discussion of the function of American Studies/Gender Studies in international settings should begin with an appraisal of the specific role that we, international Americanists/feminists, are called upon to play in academic environments distant,...
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Crossings: Multiple Margins Meet on the Bridge
I did not get to feminist ideas easily. The story of my getting to them is like a long path, one that I feel is pertinent to this reflection on what it is to be a woman who studies American literatures in Argentina, part of what the US government used...
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American Studies and the Liberation of a Japanese Woman: A Personal Narrative
Japan is an easy society to live in--except for those who struggle against rigidly established rules and categories. I'm thinking about a modern academic woman, an American Studies scholar who resisted entrapment and got battered for her efforts but...
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Nowhere Woman? A Reflection on Being Indian, Lesbian, and Academic in the United States
In early 1997, when I was completing my Ph.D. at the Pennsylvania State University, I was interviewed for a public radio show called "Odyssey Through Literature." The focus of the interview was to be my doctoral dissertation, a study of how Indian...
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Feminist Ruptures in Women's Studies and American Studies
Wittgenstein is supposed to have asked: "Can one play chess without the queen? Would it still be chess?" When the American philosopher Richard Rorty published his Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature, critics asked, "Can one do philosophy without the...
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De-Americanizing American Studies and Feminist Studies: Notes of a Portuguese Feminist Americanist
Feminist Studies and American Studies have made a difference in the academy (or, more precisely, in the North-American academy):(1) their oppositional and critical stance vis-a-vis institutional and disciplinary rigidity and compartmentalization has...
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The Internationalization of American Studies
Notes on the founding of the IASA Insiders and Outsiders in the domain of knowledge, unite. You have nothing to lose but your claims. You have a world of understanding to win. --Robert K. Merton, "Insiders and Outsiders: A Chapter in the Sociology...
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Juneteenth: A Novel for the New Millennium
In an incident in Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man(1) described in the novel's prologue, the unnamed black protagonist/narrator goes to the point of killing a white man for calling him an insulting name when he accidentally bumps into the man one night....
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Vol. 38, No. 2, June

Introduction: Asia and America at Century's End
In March 1998, the Singapore English-language daily, The Straits Times, ran an article entitled "The Asianising of America" about the influence of Asian culture on American life. Conversely, the same newspaper recently carried an article entitled "We...
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The Challenges and Tensions of a Globalized World
Around the world the crises pile up, and the collage of headlines does not make a pretty picture. In Kosovo, babies die of cold on hillsides where mothers have fled to save their lives. In Sierra Leone, madmen posing as a rebel army cut off the hands...
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Thinking through Binaries: Conceptual Strategies for Interdependence
Binaries All assertions involving Asia and America are provisional and start from notably different premises, so the best strategy is to acknowledge such differences at the outset, admitting that all such general terms as `Asia' and `America' are...
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The Sino-American Alliance during World War II and the Lifting of the Chinese Exclusion Acts
Nearly sixty years ago, Henry R. Luce envisioned that the twentieth century was "America's first century as a dominant power in the world."(1) His famous vision of "The American Century" showed America's commitment to exert upon the whole world the...
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China-US Relations: The Past as Looking Glass
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, interaction between China and the United States has assumed three different patterns, each carrying a distinct set of structural and interactive characteristics. During the period from 1949...
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Academic Dependency in the Social Sciences: Reflections on India and Malaysia
The study of the social sciences can be approached in a variety of ways. Various types of meta-analyses exist, and concerns range from the epistemological to the empirical. Metatheory, or the reflexive study of the social sciences, involves the study...
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The More Things Change: Paradigm Shifts in Asian American Studies
The implied remainder of the title of this paper is, of course, "the more they stay the same": "The more things change, the more they stay the same." In 1974 the writer Frank Chin and his fellow editors of Aiiieeeee! An Anthology of Asian-American...
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Toward a More Worldly World Series: Reading Game Three of the 1998 American League Championship and David Wong Louie's "`Warming Trends'"
In spoken discourse the dialogic situation provides the full maim of identity, but a written text is addressed to unknown readers and potentially to countless readers in the future, all of whom have the capacity and the interest to read it. This universalization...
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