Forensic Science Communications

Articles from Vol. 7, No. 2, April

Analysis of the Uniqueness and Persistence of Human Scent
Abstract To date there has been limited research on the chemical components present in human odor, their usefulness in distinguishing between people, and the persistence of human scent in the environment. This research discusses the use of solid...
Appendix II: Practical Exercises
APPENDIX II PRACTICAL EXERCISES TOPIC PAGE PRACTICAL EXERCISE USER'S GUIDE 3 PRACTICAL SAFETY ISSUES 4 PRACTICAL...
Appendix I: Reading Assignments
APPENDIX I READING ASSIGNMENTS TOPIC PAGE READING ASSIGNMENT USER'S GUIDE 2 READING ASSIGNMENTS Chapter 3 Introduction to Fibers and Textiles ...
Chapter 10: Identification of Inorganic Fibers
General Discussion This module is intended to familiarize the trainee with inorganic fibers. Some classification schemes utilize the term "mineral" fiber which can include fiber types encountered in textile products such as asbestos, glass wool,...
Chapter 11: Manufactured Fiber Examinations-Optical Properties
General Discussion This module is intended to teach the trainee proper techniques and the appropriate observations for determining the optical properties of manufactured fibers. Manufactured fibers include fibers that are manmade by chemical synthesis...
Chapter 12: Manufactured Fiber Examination-Cross Sections
General Discussion This module is intended to familiarize the trainee with various fiber cross-sectioning techniques and the type of information obtained from these techniques. Along with physical shape, cross sections reveal the distribution of...
Chapter 14: Manufactured Fiber Examination-Thermal Microscopy
General Discussion This module is intended to familiarize the trainee with the use of a polarized light microscope equipped with a hot stage to observe the effect of heat on thermoplastic fibers and to determine fiber melting point. The trainee...
Chapter 15: Manufactured Fiber Examination-Infrared Spectroscopy
General Discussion This module is intended to familiarize the trainee with the use of infrared spectroscopy (IR) for fiber identification and comparison by interpretation of absorption spectra. The IR is typically used in the identification of manufactured...
Chapter 16: Fiber Examination-Comparison Microscopy
General Discussion This module is intended to familiarize the trainee with the use of the comparison microscope and techniques for comparisons. This method is essential for the comparisons of physical and optical properties of fibers. Objectives...
Chapter 18: Fiber Examination-UV/VIS Microspectrophotometry
General Discussion This module is intended to familiarize the trainee with the use of ultraviolet/visible light microspectrophotometry as a qualitative, quantitative and objective method of color analysis. Color analysis can be applicable to natural...
Chapter 19: Fiber Examination-Dye Analysis/thin Layer Chromatography
General Discussion This module is intended to familiarize the trainee with the proper application of thin layer chromatography (TLC) for fiber dye analysis and comparison. The use of TLC is applicable to natural as well as manufactured fibers. ...
Chapter 1: Introduction
Scope of Training Program 1. This training program manual is intended as a trainer's and trainee's guide through the training process. It contains pertinent assignments and exercises to be distributed to the trainee as required. Literature and sources...
Chapter 22: Cordage Examinations
General Discussion This module is designed to familiarize the trainee with the examination and comparison of cordage, to include construction and fiber content. This module is not intended to teach the trainee identification of knots. The cordage...
Chapter 23: Interpretation and Presentation
General Discussion This module is designed to serve as a mechanism for the trainee to integrate the factors that affect evidence interpretations and the significance of fiber evidence. Although these topics should have been routinely addressed in...
Chapter 2: User's Guide
Training Steps and Record Keeping Task Descriptions The Table of Contents preceding the Introduction outlines the segments of the training program manual by Chapter and Section. Amendments to this manual may be issued periodically or may be developed...
Chapter 5: Casework Familiarization/search and Recovery
General Discussion This training module serves as a guide for introducing the basic procedures and techniques for proper documentation, detection, collection and preservation of fibrous and other trace evidence from crime scenes, individuals and...
Chapter 6: Microscopy Review
General Discussion This module is intended as a guide to familiarize the trainee with the operating theory and care of microscopes used in the laboratory. Emphasis is placed on proper illumination, calibration and preliminary observations made with...
Chapter 7: Fiber Examinations/preliminary Observations
General Discussion This module is intended as a guide to familiarize the trainee with fibrous evidence handling and mounting techniques. The trainee will be taught the proper visual and microscopical preliminary observations and examinations to...
Chapter 8: Identification of Vegetable Fibers
General Discussion This module is intended as a guide to familiarize the trainee with techniques utilized in the identification of the plant fibers which are commonly used in textile products and cordage (cotton, flax, ramie, jute, hemp, etc.)....
Chapter 9: Identification of Animal Textile Fibers
General Discussion This module is intended as a guide to familiarize the trainee with techniques used in the identification of animal textile fibers. These may include silk, leather and animal hairs. This module is not intended to include animal...
Evaluating Mixed DNA Profiles with the Presence of Relatives: Theory, Method, and Computer Software
Abstract The theory and method are provided for evaluating the evidential weight of DNA mixture in a subpopulation with the presence of related contributors. An efficient, user-friendly, Windows-based software for handing such mixture problems has...
Forensic Human Hair Examination Guidelines: Scientific Working Group on Materials Analysis (SWGMAT)
1. Introduction Hair examinations and comparisons, as generally conducted by forensic scientists, often provide important investigative and associative information. Human and animal hairs have been used in forensic investigations for over a century....
Interlaboratory Study on Bone Extraction for Mitochondrial DNA Analysis: Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods Mitochondrial DNA Subcommittee
With the implementation of the National Missing Persons DNA Database, the forensic DNA analysis of bone evidence remains continues to increase. Because the DNA found in bone evidence is frequently limited and/or degraded, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)...
Population Genetics of 17 Microsatellite Loci in Three Major Groups of Andhra Pradesh, India
Abstract Polymorphisms at 15 tetrameric short tandem repeat loci and two pentameric short tandem repeat genetic loci, Penta D and Penta E, were determined in 276 people belonging to three predominant caste populations of Andhra Pradesh, India. All...
Validation Guidelines for Laboratories Performing Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism
Preface The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline...