Kritika

Articles from Vol. 16, No. 1, Winter

Caught in the Middle: Reform and Youth Rebellion in Russia's Madrasas, 1900-10
Becoming a scholar was a common aspiration among Muslims in late imperial Russia. In 1909, a young Muslim poet published a lullaby as part of a reader for young children: One day he'll go to the madrasa, After studying and working hard, He'll...
How a War for the Past Becomes a War in the Present
Nothing is new under the sun: whether in Soviet times, before, or after, history was used and misused in Ukraine for numerous aims and occasions. In the 19th century, Ukraine followed the classic pattern of 19th-century revivalist nationalism characteristic...
Intimacy and Antipathy: Ukrainian-Russian Relations in Historical Perspective
When protests began in Kyiv in November 2013, no one could have predicted that they would ultimately result in the collapse of the Yanukovych government, the Russian annexation of Crimea, and a war in eastern Ukraine that would claim thousands of lives....
Inventing the Subtropics: An Environmental History of Sochi, 1929-36
The 1935 Soviet film The Pearl of the Soviet Union (Zhemchuzhina Sovetskogo Soiuza) opens with panoramic views of the Black Sea Coast. (1) The film then depicts the draining of wetlands and correction of rivers, the construction of a new water supply...
Medieval Visual Metaphors and Beasts Noble and Savage
D. I. Antonov and M. R. Maizul's, Demony i greshniki v drevnerusskoi ikonografii: Semiotika obraza (Demons and Sinners in Old Russian Iconography: The Semiotics of the Image). 384 pp. Moscow: Indrik, 2011. ISBN-13 978-5916741490. Aleksandr E. Makhov,...
Nineteenth-Century Russian Liberalism: Ideals and Realities
Julia Berest, The Emergence of Russian Liberalism: Alexander Kunitsyn in Context, 1783-1840. 264 pp. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. ISBN-13 978-0230111738. $95.00. Anton A. Fedyashin, Liberals under Autocracy: Modernization and Civil Society...
Region and Nation in Late Imperial Russian Ukraine
Faith Hillis, Children of Rus': Right-Bank Ukraine and the Invention of a Russian Nation. 329 pp. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2013. ISBN-13 978-9668201851. $55.00. One of the puzzles of late imperial Russian history is the fact that in...
Resistance Is Futile, but Nonresistance Might Work: The East and Russia in Tolstoi's Political Imagination, 1905-10
I dreamed that I was dressed up like a peasant, and Mother didn't recognize me. --Lev Tolstoi (1) During the last few years of his life, at the zenith of his popularity and influence, Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoi rethought the activist strands of...
Soviet Jews in Belorussia and Ukraine
Elissa Bemporad, Becoming Soviet Jews: The Bolshevik Experiment in Minsk. xi + 276 pp. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2013. ISBN-13 978-0253008220. $28.00. Jeffrey Veidlinger, In the Shadow of the Shtetl: Small-Town Jewish Life in Soviet...
State Metallurgy Factories and Direct Taxes in the Urals, 1700-50: Paths to State Building in Early Modern Russia
Historical-sociological descriptions of the rise and development of the modern bureaucratic state attribute great significance to war and taxation. According to the so-called military-taxation theory, the state collects taxes, which grant it the resources...
The History Behind the Regional Conflict in Ukraine
Different historical experiences in various regions of Ukraine have produced very different political cultures and identities. (1) Each region of Ukraine has a unique history: Transcarpathia was the only part of Ukraine to experience protracted Hungarian...
The Lithuanian Cultural Elite and the End of the Soviet Union
Violeta Davoliute, The Making and Breaking of Soviet Lithuania: Memory and Modernity in the Wake of War. 211 pp. New York: Routledge, 2013. ISBN-13 978-0415714495. $155.00. To date, we know a good deal about the "making" (Sovietization) and the...
The Ukrainian Crisis and History
Most historians are probably drawn to their craft not only by an innate curiosity for "tales of bygone years," but also because they intuitively sense that the past is always with us. Ordinary people are drawn to history for the same reason. Just as...
The "Ukrainian Crisis" and Its Multiple Histories
History in no way predetermined the way in which events in and around Ukraine would develop in the 21st century. It offered political leaders many possible scenarios from which to choose, and no appeals to the past can serve as a justification for...
What the Far Right Does Not Tell Us about the Maidan
Ukraine's Revolution of Dignity has multiple meanings. For some, it demonstrates Ukrainians' ability to organize themselves, fight a corrupt police regime, and champion the rule of law, human rights, and freedom from imperial Russian rule. For others,...
World Revolution and International Diplomacy, 1900-39
Alastair Kocho-Williams, Russian and Soviet Diplomacy, 1900--39. xii + 215 pp. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. ISBN-13 978-0230252646. $100.00. Key to the participation of a state in international diplomacy is its recognition by foreign powers....
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