International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health

Founded in 1975, International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, formerly International Family Planning Perspectives, is a peer-reviewed journal published quarterly by Guttmacher Institute. Articles include information about sexual and reproductive health in Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean and Asia.

Articles from Vol. 36, No. 3, September

Antiretroviral Therapy May Lower HIV Transmission Risk within Couples
Antiretroviral therapy may greatly reduce the risk of HIV-1 transmission, according to a study of serodiscordant heterosexual couples in seven African countries. (1) Antiretroviral therapy was associated with a 92% reduction in the transmission rate--from...
Associations between Early Marriage and Young Women's Marital and Reproductive Health Outcomes: Evidence from India
CONTEXT: Little evidence from India is available regarding the ways in which early marriage may compromise young women's lives and their reproductive health and choices. METHODS: Data from 8,314 married women aged 20-24 living in five Indian states,...
Female Genital Mutilation Complications Lead to Lost Lives and High Costs
In an analysis using simulated cohorts of women aged 15-45 from six African nations, the estimated annual cost of treating obstetric complications associated with female genital mutilation was $3.7 million (in international dollars). (1) Researchers...
Habit Is Strong Motive for Condom Use
Condom use at first and last sex and consistent condom use with steady and casual partners are more strongly associated with being motivated by habit rather than by conscious calculation or societal norms, according to the results of an online survey...
In This Issue
Family planning methods are almost universally known in Cambodia, and most women regard them as affordable and available. Nevertheless, only one in four married women were using a method in 2005, and a comparable proportion said they wanted to delay...
Intimate Partner Violence and Infant Death in India
The children of women who have experienced intimate partner violence are more likely than the children of other women to die within their first year of life, according to an analysis of National Family Health Survey data on 3,909 live births that occurred...
Introducing Female Condoms to Female Sex Workers in Central America
CONTEXT: Female condoms have a potential role in reducing HIV infection among female sex workers in Central America. Research on how to introduce female condoms to this population is warranted. METHODS: Two rounds of focus groups with sex workers...
Masturbation: Breaking the Silence
There is not one single solution to stop this epidemic. If [there] were, we would have ... found it a long time ago. --Peter Piot, former executive director of UNAIDS (1) "It saved me." This emphatic, unrestrained declaration was the response of...
Maternal Stature Linked to Under-Five Mortality
A woman's height is inversely associated with her child's risk of dying before the age of five and with indicators of substandard growth and weight gain, according to an analysis of data from 109 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 1991...
Men with HPV May Have Elevated HIV Risk, Kenyan Study Reveals
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may be a risk factor for HIV acquisition, according to findings from a Kenyan study. (1) Young men who had HPV at the beginning of the four-year trial had a higher risk than uninfected men of subsequent HIV infection...
Microbicidal Gel Reduces Women's HIV Risk by 54% in South African Trial
After two decades of research, investigators may have developed a microbicide that provides substantial protection against HIV. (1) In a randomized trial of tenofovir, the first antiretroviral drug to be formulated as a microbicidal gel, the incidence...
Neonatal Mortality Declined and Antenatal Visits Rose after Initiation of India's Safe Motherhood Program
In a national study of a government program designed to encourage Indian women to give birth at health facilities, the proportion of new mothers who had made three antenatal visits rose from 46% before implementation to 54% several years after program...
Predictors of Condom Use among Kenyan Adolescents Are Wide-Ranging, Vary by Gender
Individual-, community- and school-level factors all play a role in whether young people use condoms, according to a study of upper primary students in Kenya. (1) The odds of having used a condom at last sex were elevated among both male and female...
Self-Reported Abortion-Related Morbidity: A Comparison of Measures in Madhya Pradesh, India
CONTEXT: Globally, abortion-related morbidity places a largely unmeasured physical, social and economic burden on women, yet little research has examined population-level morbidity, particularly in developing countries. METHODS: Data were drawn...
The Role of Social Support and Parity on Contraceptive Use in Cambodia
CONTEXT: In Cambodia, unmet need for contraception is high. Studies suggest that social support and parity each play a role in contraceptive decision making. METHODS: A representative sample of 706 married women aged 15-49 from two rural provinces...
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