Issues in Informing Science & Information Technology

Articles from Vol. 1, Annual

A–W W
A Case to Do Empirical Study Using Educational Projects
Introduction To provide students with the project-based software engineering course is accepted in software engineering education community and some good examples have been reported (Andersen, Conradi, Krogstie, Sindre, & Solvberg, 1994). In...
Accessibility Improvement of Multicultural Educational Web Interface by Using the User Centred Design (UCD) Approach
Introduction Gathering information from websites is becoming common practice in this era. No one knows for sure exactly how many people are online. One guess is, there are 605.60 million people online as of September 2002 (Nua Internet Surveys,...
A Comparison of Learning and Teaching Styles-Self-Perception of IT Students
Introduction The accelerated growth of the education sector in the last two decades could be partly contributed to the Internet based communication tools that were widely used to deliver courses and support students. Increasing demand for quality...
A Computer Hardware/software/services Planning and Selection Course for the CIS/IT Curriculum
Introduction The purpose of this paper is to present the case that viable Computer Information Systems (CIS) and Information Technology (IT) academic programs should include a senior level course in the area of computer hardware, software, services...
A Contribution to Defining the Term 'Definition'
Introduction Over time, a massive stock of information has been accumulated; the body of knowledge records is growing faster than the substance of knowledge itself, and it is increasingly difficult to search, manipulate, communicate, and transfer...
Action-Guidance: An Action Research Project for the Application of Informing Science in Educational and Vocational Guidance
Introduction Many recent research studies, especially the OECD and the UNESCO analyses of secondary education's status and evolution, show that many students do not graduate from high school. In Italy, as the most recent yearly reports of the Italian...
A Data Model Validation Approach for Relational Database Design Courses
Introduction Several critical steps make up the database life cycle, but data model validation is often overlooked in course projects that teach relational database design. This is unsurprising, because while most database texts stress the importance...
A Framework for Student Assessment Using Applied Simulation
Introduction This paper puts a case for and suggests an initial framework to develop a simulation software tool to assess both the practical skills and other non-vocational qualities of graduating Information Systems students. The proposed software...
A Framework for Teaching Mobile and Wireless Technology
Introduction Teaching the use of technology or the technology itself comes with a certain amount of inherent risks and drawbacks. Most technology is upgraded every 18 to 24 months. During any year the technology may have, patches, service packs,...
A Markov Decision Process Model for Traffic Prioritisation Provisioning
Introduction Network has proliferated at the tremendous speed over the last 30 years. This proliferation came together with the proliferation in the network applications which has caused to the increasingly amount of traffic in the network. Traffic...
A Matrixulation Method for Mapping an E-Learning Environment Designer's Conception of Learning: A Pilot Study
Introduction We all have some conception of what learning is (Marton, 1998; Tynjala, 1999). These conceptions are unique, but classification allows them to be presented in a more general and universal way (Marton, Dall'Alba & Beaty, 1993). This...
A New State Model for Internetworks Technology
Introduction The ACM/IEEE Computing Curriculum 2001 included Net-Centric Computing in the Computer Science Undergraduate Body of Knowledge (IEEE/ACM, 2001). There are however a wide range of equally valid approaches to teaching network curriculum...
Are All DISTANCE Learners Created Equal? A Quantitative Analysis of Academic Performance in a Distance Tertiary Institution
Introduction This paper presents the results of an empirical study of the learning styles of a group of students on a computer concepts course at The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand in 2003. The Open Polytechnic is the only specialist provider of...
A Single Case Study Approach to Teaching: Effects on Learning and Understanding
Introduction The need for improvement in the delivery of IT projects has been well documented (Dhillon & Backhouse, 1996; Hochstrasser, 1993; Lin & Pervan, 2001; McGunnagle, 1995; Schwalbe, 2002; The Standish Group, 1995, 2001). Many projects...
Assessing the Impact of Instructional Methods and Information Technology on Student Learning Styles
Introduction The current outcome-based educational environment has brought an increased emphasis on understanding and enhancing the teaching-learning process. Instructional methods and student learning styles are the two critical factors that play...
Automatically Grading Essays with Markit[c]
Introduction At IS2002 in Cork, Ireland (Palmer et al. 2002), we reported on a trial of a commercially available computer grading system as used to automatically grade first year university student essays. The results were encouraging, but we felt...
A Web Services-Oriented Approach to Unlock Information
Introduction Web services, due to their ability in cost-effectively connecting applications, systems and partners, are leading to major change to business processes (e.g., improvement, reengineering, composition, e-business and B2B). They are expected...
Behavioural Issues in Software Development: The Evolution of a New Course Dealing with the Psychology of Computer Programming
Introduction Programming is a highly demanding, meta-level task that involves the design of instructions to direct a computational device in performing functions that amplify or extend human potential in a wide variety of intellectual activities....
Biases and Heuristics in Judgment and Decision Making: The Dark Side of Tacit Knowledge
Introduction The main focus of current knowledge management research is to capture the knowledge that tacitly resides in the employees' heads and to turn it into the explicit form for others to use. Researchers agree that knowledge is a very 'messy'...
Challenge or Chaos: A Discourse Analysis of Women's Perceptions of the Culture of Change in the IT Industry
Introduction The IT industry is one of the most significant for any modern industrial state, in terms of supporting domestic services, enabling a nation to engage in global communications and providing opportunities for international trade. However,...
Collaborative Work Skills for the Beginning IS Professional
Introduction Over the last decade the information technology professional workplace has changed; changed in structure, location of its workers, the type of work, the way work is done, the tools used to engage its workers in communication, and the...
Communication and Cooperation: Technology Transfer on Australian Family Cotton Farms
Introduction The cotton industry in Australia is thriving. Cotton is a valuable export with a consistent annual worth above 1.5 billion dollars. Nevertheless, cotton management is becoming increasingly complex with the need to sustain reliable crop...
Communication Management and Control in Distance Learning Scenarios
Introduction Communication plays a major role in successful e-learning scenarios. Most of the e-learning or learning management software environments available on the market offer at least some kind of communication support. But the focus of e-education...
Computer Use and Immersion in a Non-IT Course
Introduction For several years, we have developed and augmented pedagogy that uses the computer to support lectures and problem-solving in the classroom and makes extensive lecture notes available to students for self-study. While the computer techniques...
Connecting with the Y Generation: An Analysis of Factors Associated with the Academic Performance of Foundation IS Students
Introduction In the year 2000, a strategy was developed and adopted to overcome identified challenges associated with the characteristics of the current cohort of students undertaking the foundation Information Systems (IS) course. The strategy...
Contextual Factors and Administrative Changes
Introduction During the past two decades, the world has witnessed a technological evolution that has provided a totally new environment for organisations. It has also been argued that the growing level of global competition leads to the adoption...
Creation of Anticipatory Information Support for Virtual Organizations between System(s) Theory and System Thinking
Introduction Contemporary life is complex. So is anticipation of the events to come. (See definition of anticipation in Potocan, 2002.) That is why many discuss modern trends in anticipation, and its application in business systems (BSs). (See definition...
Critical Thinking and Reasoning for Information Systems Students
Introduction The new IS2002 curriculum has strong analytical and critical thinking skills second on their list of four characteristics of an Information Systems (IS) graduate. The authors say that these skills have been integrated into the new curriculum...
Customer Service Factors Influencing Internet Shopping in New Zealand
Introduction Recent reports show that more than half of New Zealand Internet users have not shopped on the Internet and many companies are only slowly implementing e-commerce capabilities ("New Zealand Firms," 2002; "Retailing," 2000). It is becoming...
Cyber Crime Influencing Businesses in South Africa
Introduction While the affects of cyber crime are well documented on overseas (particularly American, Australian, British and some European) companies, very little research appears to be available about South African companies. Research needs to...
Deakin Online: An Evolving Case Study
Introduction In the early 1990's, Hiltz (1994) suggested that "what we are going to see in the future are more Virtual Universities", that the "meaning of the 'university' will change, and the idea of a 'campus' as we know it may disappear. It is...
Development and Validation of an Instrument for Assessing Users' Views about the Usability of Digital Libraries
Introduction A digital library is a blend of "(1) a service; (2) an architecture; (3) a set of information resources, databases of text, numbers, graphics, sound and video etc.; and (4) a set of tools and capabilities to locate, retrieve and utilize...
Does Technology Impact on Teaching Styles or Do Teaching Styles Impact on Technology in the Delivery of Higher Education?
Introduction New technological environments can promote a great number of efficiencies and potential benefits in the way universities show and process the information required in their teaching functions. Block and Dobell, (1999), forecasted that...
Do Project Manager's Utilise Potential Customers in E-Commerce Developments?
Introduction Since the 1960's it has been generally acknowledged that user participation in the Information Systems (IS) development process increases the likelihood of project success (Barki & Hartwick 1994; Foster & Franz 1999). Put another...
Dynamic Analysis of Barriers to Entry as a Task for an Intelligent Tool
Introduction Many factors that should be taken into account while discussing enterprise strategy exist in the economic environment of an enterprise. In one of the best known models of this environment, by M. E. Porter (1999), the environment consists...
E-HR and Employee Self Service: A Case Study of a Victorian Public Sector Organisation
Introduction The Human Resource Management (HRM) function has changed dramatically over time evolving from the traditional administrative function primarily responsible for payroll processing to a more strategic direction of human capital management...
E-Mail and Misinformation: A South African Case Study
Introduction On September 11 2001, eight hours after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon, two South African brothers, Willem and Christiaan Conradie, allegedly fabricated and distributed the following e-mail message (Damon,...
Enterprise Applications Portfolio Management Utilizing COTS
Introduction Enterprise applications and their associated data offer a crystallization of business processes whose cost-effort metrics, such as Function Point (FP) method, have been well defined over the past 35 years of software engineering and...
ERP Systems and User Perceptions: An Approach for Implementation Success
Introduction The notion of ERP implementation success, the usability of ERP systems and the user perception of the ERP system is widely discussed in the IS literature. The dawn of ERP systems have brought many changes among small to medium businesses,...
Evaluation of Web Pages as a Tool in Public Relations
Introduction Public relations are becoming an increasingly important topic in today's competitive economy: how to efficiently inform different interest groups that can affect the performance of a company, is certainly a crucial question. Theory...
Exploring Change and Innovation by ICT Teaching Staff in the New Zealand Polytechnic Sector
Increased Change and Innovation Management A report from the World Economic Forum by Paua (2003) indicates that the diffusion of ICT continues across the world, with very high and dynamic growth in some countries. Australia and New Zealand are among...
Exploring the Research Ethics Domain for Postgraduate Students in Computing
Introduction Achieving ethical practice with postgraduate research students is a multi-faceted and complex process requiring clear direction and exemplary role modelling. A shift in emphasis is needed to balance a positivist with a human-centred...
Extended Object Languages for the Extolware Persistence Framework
Introduction Structured Query Language or SEQUEL (later rename to SQL) has been evolving since early 1970 after Relational Data Model was first proposed by E.F. Codd (Date, 2000) and released by IBM as System R commercially to the market. The impact...
Factors Influencing the Decision to Choose Information Technology Preparatory Studies in Secondary Schools: An Exploratory Study in Regional/rural Australia
Introduction Subjects chosen in the final two years of secondary school have a strong influence on the overall career choices of students and the choices they make about tertiary education. In the last few years, following a downward trend in the...
From Paper Work to a PC World Online Practice for a Large On-Campus Class
Introduction Ostfold University College of Norway has emphasized particularly industry contacts and used relevant industrial tasks for their engineering students. The project work is a key method and basic skill for their engineering students through...
Guiding Students Learning Project Team Management from Their Own Practice
Introduction In the final year study in computer science, software engineering, and information technology, students are required to complete a teamwork-based project. To this stage, it is assumed that students have taken many fundamental and specialised...
Higher Education Course Content: Paper-Based, Online or Hybrid Course Delivery?
Introduction The rapid growth and apparent ubiquity of the Internet has the potential to drive a revolution in education, particularly in regards to the delivery of courses (Bleed, 2001; Brown, 2002; Carnevale, 1999). Indeed, for those in the global...
How Much Can We Spare with E-Business: Examining the Effects in Supply Chain Management
Introduction Various aspects of e-business have attracted increased attention in recent years. Different theoretical advantages of the use of e-business were established and their practical application was described with various case studies. The...
Human-Computer Interaction Gearing Up for Work
Introduction This project aims to capture the efficiencies of human-computer interaction (HCI) to enhance jobsearching outcomes for people undergoing vocational rehabilitation programmes. Web-based employment service provision can provide open,...
ICT Education and Training in Sub-Saharan Africa: Multimode versus Traditional Distance Learning
Introduction In general distance learning means learning in which the learner is distant from the education institution providing the relevant tuition. In this paper we use the term "traditional distance learning", denoting thereby distance learning...
Information Quality: The Relationship to Recruitment in Pre-Tertiary IT Education
Introduction "As a general rule, the most successful man in life is the man who has the best information." Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) The decisions that pre-tertiary students make regarding their future study and career paths will subsequently...
Information Security Management: A Research Project
Introduction The next step in the evolution of enterprise networking is the wireless LANs, which are being deployed across all industries, including Financial Service Providers for their productivity and cost-saving benefits. Corporate responsibility...
Information Systems Development Methodologies and All That Jazz
Introduction This paper started life as an individual student assignment for an information systems development methodologies (ISDM) Masters course. In this course a number of approaches are adopted to help students explore different aspects of...
Insights into Using Agile Development Methods in Student Final Year Projects
Introduction Students in the Bachelor of Commerce courses in Information Systems, Information Technology and Electronic Commerce (and combinations) in the School of Information Systems at Curtin University are required to undertake a major industry-based...
Instructional Design Tips for Virtually Teaching Practical Skills
Introduction Many of the challenging computer-based training projects undertaken by the Group for Advanced Information Technology (GAIT) at the Technology Centre of the British Columbia Institute of Technology have taught practical skills. These...
Integrating E-Learning Content into Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Curriculum
Introduction Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are modular application software that helps businesses increase the productivity of such mission-critical components as human resources, finance, parts purchasing, inventory control, supply...
Introducing Instruction into a Personalised Learning Environment
Introduction In a quest to provide improved Learning Environments (LE) for students at tertiary level in particular, researchers (Eklund & Brusilovsky, 1998; Kurzel, Slay, & Hagenus, 2003; Martinez, 2001a; Sampson, Karagiannidis, & Kinshuk,...
Issues in Implementing CRM: A Case Study
Introduction The use of CRM (Customer Relationship Management) systems in diverse industries is now common around the globe. However, the fact that many companies have undergone this process does not mean that it's easy to implement such a system,...
IT Educators and IT Adoption
Introduction Technology is a constant stream--perhaps flood is more descriptive--of innovations in new technology and changes to existing technologies. Thousands of products are introduced each year. Potential adopters--business, industry, educational...
Location-Oriented Knowledge Management in a Tourism Context: Connecting Virtual Communities to Physical Locations
Introduction Location-oriented knowledge management (LoKM) is a novel research direction motivated by the observation that often utility and relevance of information is influenced by the physical location of the information seeker (Lueg & Lichtenstein,...
Logical Soft Systems Methodology for Education Programme Development
Introduction Hong Kong is an important financial, commercial, and industrial centre in the Asia-Pacific region. The IT (Information Technology) and Business Computing (collectively called Business Information Systems (BIS)) have proliferated and...
Making a CASE for Using the Students Choice of Software or Systems Development Tools
Introduction This paper outlines the first stages of a major research project. The paper describes an evaluation of a method by which a software product such as a Computer-Aided Software or Systems Engineering (CASE) tool may be selected for adoption...
Manufacturing Organizational Memory: Logged Conversation Thread Analysis
Introduction Logged conversation must be conceived of as an OM (Organizational Memory) manufacturing process acquired during active discussions among conversation participants and logged into a hierarchy of text-format data. A mailing list provides...
Misinforming Knowledge through Ontology
Introduction The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has now a recognised ontology modelling language (W3C 2004). Tools exist such as Chimera from Stanford University (Stanford, 2004) that allow us to [perform analysis on ontologies embedded in web...
Music in Cyberspace
Introduction Prior to the 1990s, the Internet was relatively restriction-free and censorship-free because the impact of an insignificant number of users did not warrant serious concern for regulation in cyberspace. At that time, cyberspace provided...
On-Line Learning and Ontological Engineering
Introduction Although the burst of the internet bubble resulted in a slow down of network structural expansion, the use of the Web for distance learning is steadily growing. Web-based learning (for example, Boysen, & Van Gorp; 1997 and Frasson,...
On the Idea of Organization Transformation: The IS/IT Design Challenge in Systems Thinking
Introduction In the emerging knowledge economy (OECD, 1996), as the possibilities of the information revolution challenge traditional business logic, organization transformation has become one of the most popular subjects on business management...
Organisational Paradigms and Network Centric Organizations
Introduction During the '90s, a number of companies attained dramatic competitive advantages in their fields by creating comprehensive, complex communication and information networks. These companies, facilitated by the increasing efficiencies and...
Preparing Teachers for the Challenges of Technology Integration
Introduction Models of technology integration that maximize the benefits of using computers to aid learning allow students the flexibility to explore and use their own inspiration to complete assignments within the rubric for each project. The use...
Project-Based Learning in Online Postgraduate Education
Introduction The growing trend for universities to offer postgraduate courses online (e-learning) is becoming increasingly attractive, as institutions seek to meet the needs of diverse student populations. (Maguire & Matejka, 2000) discuss various...
Promoting Fusion in the Business-IT Relationship
Introduction Research projects to quantify the success rate of IT projects found a high percentage of unsuccessful information systems in organisations. The criteria for success of IT projects are that they are delivered on time, within (or below)...
Public Perceptions of Biometric Devices: The Effect of Misinformation on Acceptance and Use
Introduction The term biometrics relates to the measurement (metric) of characteristics of a living (bio) thing in order to identify it. The techniques of using physical characteristics for identification can be traced to the ancient Egyptians who...
Restructuring an Undergraduate Database Management Course for Business Students
Introduction Educators are challenged to maintain the currency and relevance of IT (information technology) education, due to the dynamic nature of the information systems profession (Cappel, 2001-2002). One of the important functions of educators...
Retrofitting Generic Graduate Attributes: A Case-Study of Information Systems Undergraduate Programs
Introduction There are many groups with varying expectations of the attributes of university graduates. Employers are one group requiring graduates with high level skills and various attributes. Professional bodies and associations often stipulate...
Returning the 'I' in the 'IT' Education of MScIS/MBA Professionals
Introduction The last couple of decades are being labeled as the "information age", in which productivity is no longer associated with manufacturing and distribution, but is more likely to be "the result of 'knowledge workers' who process information...
Searching for Tomorrow's Programmers
Introduction I thought to myself "Why am I even here?" It was 2am and I was on a minibus driving through the outskirts of Colombo, Sri Lanka. The driver hurried along at a frenzied pace taking every opportunity to overtake. The minibus had worn...
Share, Collaborate, Create Virtual Conferences
Introduction Considering the worldwide economic and political panorama, some countries and institutions can not afford to or will not incur the expense of sending delegates to real conferences. VCG is an alternative, reducing the physical and temporal...
Software Development: Informing Sciences Perspective
Introduction Eli Cohen (1999) defines Informing Sciences (IS) as "the field of inquiry that attempts to provide the business client with information in a form, format, and schedule that maximizes its effectiveness." This definition implicitly and...
Students' Pedagogical Preferences in the Delivery of IT Capstone Courses
Introduction Final-year industry projects are the capstones of many academic information technology programs across the globe. These projects give students the opportunity to develop, refine, and evaluate their technical knowledge and skills in...
Submission and Peer Review of Learning Objects Using a Community-Based Repository
Introduction Listening to John Bell present his paper (Bell, 2003) at the Australasian Computing Education conference left me wondering about yet another word in the IT lexicon that had taken on a different and yet overlapping meaning. The word...
Teaching and Learning with BlueJ: An Evaluation of a Pedagogical Tool
Introduction The BlueJ programming environment (Kolling & Rosenberg, 1996) was designed and implemented by Michael Kolling and John Rosenberg in order to improve the teaching and learning of introductory programming in an object-oriented style...
Technology and Marginalization: A Case Study of the Limited Adoption of the Intranet at a State-Owned Organization in Rural Australia
Introduction Every organization has a system of communication, through which it formulates and implements its organizational goals and coordinates its diverse activities. Computer-mediated communication systems such as the intranet, increase the...
The Cycle of Knowledge Creation and Learning in Agribusiness
Introduction The changes in global production have had a great impact on Brazilian agribusiness. The agribusiness organizations (considered all segments linked to the productive chain from production to the final consumers) have undergone evolutions...
The Effect of a Computer Instructional Model in Bringing about a Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Particulate Concepts of Gas
Introduction This study is part of a research project, which was conducted with funds provided by National Science Council in Taiwan. It was designed to study knowledge acquisition processes in science domains through a variety of teaching strategies...
The Evaluation of a Computer Ethics Program
Introduction The importance of teaching computer ethics in undergraduate information technology (IT) degree programs is shown by the topic's inclusion as core content in the Computing Curricula 2001 body of knowledge (Engel, 2001), the Information...
The Human Dimension on Distance Learning: A Case Study of a Telecommunications Company
Introduction The history of administration reveals that the greatest concern for the people in organizations first appeared in the 1930's, in opposition to the mechanistic paradigm of the scientific management and classical theories, which were...
The Impact of Web-Based Middleware Systems on Training and Assessment through In-House Develop System
Introduction The society today is in an era where valuable information spread all over the world can easily be obtained at the click of a button. The advent of the Internet and the World Wide Web has made this goal realistic. Valuable information...
The Need for an Analysis Body of Knowledge (ABOK)-Will the Real Analyst Please Stand Up?
Introduction A number of research projects have been completed throughout the world to quantify the success rate of IT projects and it was found that the percentage of unsuccessful information systems in organisations is very high. The criteria...
The Need for Training of Computer and Information Systems Managers
Introduction The need for organizations to incorporate existing and future technologies in order to remain competitive has become a more pressing issue over the last several years. As electronic commerce becomes more common, how and when companies...
The Roles of Challenge and Skill in the Flow Experiences of Web Users
Introduction Numerous researchers in the field of information systems have employed Csikszentmihalyi's (1975, 1990) flow theory in their analyses of the behavior of Web users, particularly within the context of online shopping (Agarwal & Karahanna,...
The SWIMS CD-ROM Pilot: Using Community Development Principles and Technologies of the Information Society to Address Identified Informational Needs
Introduction There is increasing evidence of the information and communication technologies (ICTs) being used to transform many of the activities that occupy people in their day-to-day lives (Harris, 1999). At the very least, the so-called 'Information...
The Usage of E-Learning Material to Support Good Communication with Learners
Introduction Although there has been much discussion over different methods to teach college students, lectures are not likely to stop being used specially in learning English as a secondary language in a certain country, namely Malaysia. To emphasize...
To PhD or Not to PhD
Background What is a Doctor of Philosophy, a PhD? The award of a PhD certifies that the holder has mastered the skills required, and has demonstrated the ability to, undertake original research that advances the field of knowledge in a particular...
Towards an Interactive Learning Environment for Object-Z
Introduction Reliability is an important requirement for software products. Formal specification is an important vehicle to attain reliability in the software development process. Despite its importance in industry and commerce, formal specification...
Towards a Structural Model Connecting Hard Skills, Soft Skills and Job Conditions and the Is Professional: The Student Perspective
Introduction The IS professional is a person who is endowed with technical skills usually formally learned at university, has some other non-technical academic knowledge studied during the course. The IS professional also has personal qualities...
Towards Egocentric Way-Finding Appliances Supporting Navigation in Unfamiliar Terrain
Introduction A person in a foreign environment wishing to walk to a place is often assisted by information communicated by persons more familiar with that environment that enables navigation to the destination by piloting. Piloting refers to performing...
Universal Help Desk Database Access Tool Using C# and WEB Services on the .NET Platform
Introduction In the process of the software development and maintenance, there is continuous need for monitoring database changes and investigating data changes and data consistency. Discovered errors are usually reported in the separate report...
Visions of a Wireless Future in Education Technology
Introduction Traditional lecture room teaching has numerous drawbacks. Students, for instance, don't always want to collaborate in the process. This may be because they are too shy, too tired or simply uninterested. Many teachers over the years...
Web ACE-A Study in Reciprocal Informing
Introduction The Computer Science degree at Victoria University is a three-year full time program, and the majority of students enter the course as school-leavers. A significant part of the degree is a final year subject--the Project. The Project,...
Web Based vs. Web Supported Learning Environment-A Distinction of Course Organizing or Learning Style?
Introduction The debate of online teaching and practice has never been ceased since our university college introduced online solutions as an alternative teaching tool. Like other academic discussions, there is still no clear answer for this debate...
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