UNESCO Courier

Articles from May

An Unequal Combat
The story of the military conquest of Africa is an epic of heroic resistance against tremendous odds. It was a struggle in which, in virtually every respect, the dice were heavily loaded in favour of the European invaders. In the first place, thanks...
East Africa: Diplomacy and Defiance
The colonialist scramble for east Africa was three-pronged, involving, as it did, three competing powers: the Sultanate of Zanzibar, Germay and Britain. The first on the scene were the Arabs who operated from Zanzibar. Their interests both on the...
Ife-Benin: Two Kingdoms, One Culture
Considerng the central place it occupies in the general history of the Yoruba, we know surprisingly little about the history of Ife. After the comparative wealth of detail attached to the legendary founder of the State, Oduduwa, and his immediate successors,...
North Africa: The Long Struggle
The nineteenth century colonialist drive in north Africa was unusual in being a sequel to earlier campaigns. For four centuries the Moroccan Government had been resisting the Spaniards who had established themselves at Ceuta and Melilla. Moroccans...
The Colonial Challenge; Africa under Foreign Domination, 1880-1935
Never in the history of Africa have so many changes occurred, with such speed, as during the period 1880 to 1935. Indeed, the most fundamental and most tragic of these changes took place between 1890 and 1910, the twenty-year period that saw the conquest...
The Colonial Heritage
By 1935, colonialism had been fastened on Africa like a steel grid, and it looked as if it was going to remain there for ever. However, colonialism proved just as ephemeral as any other institution created and maintained by force. Within a matter...
The Scramble for Territory
ALTHOUGH by the end of the third quarter of the nineteenth century France, Britain, Portugal and Germany had acquired commercial interests and were exercising considerable influence in defferent parts of Africa, their direct political control in the...
The Secrets of Zimbabwe
Whatever the fundamental causes behind the rise of Great Zimbabwe, there is no doubt that it is a most impressive monument. The site is dominated by the Acropolis, a long, granite hill covered with enormous boulders. Successive...
Trade Links from Europe to Cathay
From the twelfth to the sixteenth century, Africa played a major role in intercontinental relations, particularly in the Mediterranean region and, via the Indian Ocean, with Asia. The Mediterranean. Although there was some trade in such products as...
West Africa's Oldest Metropolis
The results of archaelogical excavations carried out in 1977 and 1981 on an ancient site near the city of Jenne, in Mali, have contradicted previous assumptions about the history of west Africa bu pushing back the date of the emergence of this city...
West Africa; the Fight for Survival
The period from 1880 to 1900 was the high-water mark of European conquest and occupation of west Africa. There were French campaigns in the western Sudan, Ivory Coast and Dahomey between 1880 and 1898, and British campaigns in Asante, the Delta region...
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