Foreign Affairs

Articles from Vol. 93, No. 2, March/April

America's Energy Edge: The Geopolitical Consequences of the Shale Revolution
Only five years ago, the world's supply of oil appeared to be peaking, and as conventional gas production declined in the United States, it seemed that the country would become dependent on costly natural gas imports. But in the years since, those predictions...
Among the Believers: What Jalal Al-E Ahmad Thought Iranian Islamism Could Learn from Zionism
In the early 1960s, Jalal Al-e Ahmad was one of Iran's leading literary celebrities, a writer whose works deeply impressed the dissident clerics who would go on to found and lead the Islamic Republic. Born to a devout family in Tehran in 1923, a boy...
As Objects Go Online: The Promise (and Pitfalls) of the Internet of Things
Since 1969, when the first bit of data was transmitted over what would come to be known as the Internet, that global network has evolved from linking mainframe computers to connecting per- sonal computers and now mobile devices. By 2010, the number of...
Eastern Europe Goes South: Disappearing Democracy in the EU's Newest Members
Europeans love to celebrate anniversaries, especially those commemorating a terrible past overcome. This year will offer many such moments, marking as it will 100 years since the outbreak of World War I, 75 years since the beginning of World War II,...
Failure to Launch: How Obama Fumbled HealthCare.gov
President Barack Obama has often said that his proudest domestic achievement is the passage of the Patient Protection and Afford- able Care Act (commonly known as the aca or Obamacare). The sprawling law, pushed through Congress in 2010 in the face of...
How China and America See Each Other: And Why They Are on a Collision Course
How China and America See Each Other And Why They Are on a Collision Course Minxin Pei Debating China: The U.S.-China Relationship in Ten Conversations edited by nina hac higian. Oxford University Press, 2014, 272 pp. $21.95.It has become one of the...
Hypocrisy Hype: Can Washington Still Walk and Talk Differently?/Farrell and Finnemore Reply
The Game Has Not ChangedIn their essay "The End of Hypoc- risy" (November/December 2013), Henry Farrell and Martha Finnemore argue that the biggest threat from leakers of classified information such as Chelsea Manning and Edward Snowden is that "they...
Is Cyberwar Real?: Gauging the Threats/Rid Replies
Cyberattacks and ViolenceThomas Rid ("Cyberwar and Peace," November/December 2013) describes cyberattacks as somehow separate from conventional warfare because they fail to meet all three of Clausewitz's definitions of war as violent, instrumental, and...
Live and Let Leak: State Secrets in the Snowden Era
Live and Let Leak State Secrets in the Snowden Era Jack Shafer Secrets and Leaks: The Dilemma of State Secrecy by rahul Sagar. Princeton University Press, 2013, 304 pp. $35.00.The U.S. government commands few capabilities more potent than its power to...
Maimonides Meets Modernity: Contemporary Lessons from Judaism's Greatest Sage
Maimonides Meets Modernity Contemporary Lessons From Judaism's Greatest Sage Jay M. Harris Maimonides: Life and Thought by moshe halbertal. transl ated by Joel Linsider. Princeton University Press, 2013, 400 pp. $35.00.In the fall of 1993, as my daughter...
(Mis)leading Indicators: Why Our Economic Numbers Distort Reality
Economic numbers have come to define our world. Individuals, organizations, and governments assess how they are doing based on what these numbers tell them. Economists and analysts loosely refer to statistics measuring gdp, unemployment, inflation, and...
Moscow and the Mosque: Co-Opting Muslims in Putin's Russia
If Russians were holding their breath in the run-up to the 2014 Winter Olympics, it was with good reason. A Black Sea spa town long favored by Kremlin apparatchiks, Sochi occupies a perilous position on Russia's southern frontier, just 50 miles west...
Networking Nature: How Technology Is Transforming Conservation
Conservation is for the first time beginning to operate at the pace and on the scale necessary to keep up with, and even get ahead of, the planet's most intractable environmental challenges. New technologies have given conservationists abilities that...
Privacy Pragmatism: Focus on Data Use, Not Data Collection
Ever since the Internet became a mass social phenomenon in the 1990s, people have worried about its effects on their privacy. From time to time, a major scandal has erupted, focusing attention on those anxieties; last year's revelations concerning the...
Recent Books: Africa: Making Citizens in Africa: Ethnicity, Gender, and National Identity in Ethiopia/Food and Agriculture in Ethiopia: Progress and Policy Challenges
Making Citizens in Africa: Ethnicity, Gender, and National Identity in Ethiopia by Lahra Smith. Cambridge University Press, 2013, 276 pp. $85.00 (paper, $29.99).Food and Agriculture in Ethiopia: Progress and Policy Challenges edited by Paul Corosh and...
Recent Books: Asia and Pacific: Chinese Industrial Espionage: Technology Acquisition and Military Modernization
Chinese Industrial Espionage: Technology Acquisition and Military Modernization by William C. Hannas, James Mulvenon, and Anna B. Puglisi. Routledge, 2013, 302 pp. $155.00 (paper, $39.95).This book rings alarm bells about technology theft on a scale...
Recent Books: Asia and Pacific: North Korea: Witness to Transformation
38 North (www.38north.org) U.S.-Korea Institute at the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University. Free online.North Korea: Witness to transformation (www.piie.com/blogs/nk) by Marcus Noland and Stephan Haggard. Peterson Institute...
Recent Books: Economic, Social, and Environmental: Dogfight: How Apple and Google Went to War and Started a Revolution/The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon
Dogfight: How Apple and Google Went to War and Started a Revolution by Fred VoGeLstein. sarah Crichton books, 2013, 272 pp. $27.00.The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon by brad stone. Little, brown, 2013, 384 pp. $28.00.amazon, apple,...
Recent Books: Middle East: Shifting Sands: The United States in the Middle East
Shifting Sands: The United States in the Middle East by Joel S. Migdal. Columbia University Press, 2014, 424 pp. $35.00.Migdal's intriguing analysis rests on a somewhat revisionist take of the main phases of U.S. Middle East policy, which forces readers...
Recent Books: Middle East: The Second Arab Awakening: And the Battle for Pluralism
The Second Arab Awakening: And the Battle for Pluralism by Marwan Muasher. Yale University Press, 2014, 232 pp. $30.00. Will the Middle East Implode? by Mohammed Ayoob. Polity Press, 2014, 136 pp. $45.00 (paper, $12.95).These succinct and accessible...
Recent Books: Western Hemisphere: Democracy in Latin America: Between Hope and Despair
Democracy in Latin America: Between Hope and Despair By Ignacio Walker. Translated by Krystin Krause, Holly Bird, and Scott Mainwaring. University of Notre Dame Press, 2013, 280 pp. $38.00.Offering much more hope than despair, these sophisticated reflections...
Recent Books: Western Hemisphere: Intimate Activism: The Struggle for Sexual Rights in Postrevolutionary Nicaragua
Intimate Activism: The Struggle for Sexual Rights in Postrevolutionary Nicaragua by Cymene hoWe. duke university Press, 2013, 248 pp. $84.95 (paper, $23.95).as a young anthropologist, howe traveled to nicaragua to investigate how rights typically codified...
Recent Books: Western Hemisphere: Metropolitan Governance in the Federalist Americas: Strategies for Equitable and Integrated Development
Metropolitan Governance in the Federalist Americas: Strategies for Equitable and Integrated Development edited by Peter k. sPink, Peter m. Ward, and robert h. WiLson. university of notre dame Press, 2012, 328 pp. $38.00.throughout the Western hemisphere,...
Reforming Nigeria: A Conversation with Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala
A Conversation With Ngozi Okonjo-IwealaBorn to professors in what was then still a British colony, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala was a teenager when civil war broke out in Nigeria seven years after independence, and she ended up working as a cook for the Biafran...
The First Cold War: The Environmental Lessons of the Little Ice Age
The First Cold War The Environmental Lessons of the Little Ice Age Deborah R. Coen Global Crisis: War, Climate Change, and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century by Geoffrey parker. Yale University Press, 2013, 904 pp. $40.00.Reflecting on the "misery...
The Indian in the Closet: New Delhi's Wrong Turn on Gay Rights
On a bright January day, a group of around 200 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (lgbt) activists dressed in black, to symbolize mourning, gathered at Jantar Mantar, a site in New Delhi that frequently plays host to protests and demonstrations....
The Key to Successful Tech Management: Learning to Metabolize Failure
Late last October, the management expert Jeffrey Zients was given a mandate to fix HealthCare.gov, the website at the fore- front of U.S. President Barack Obama's health-care reform, after its disastrous launch. Refusing to engage in happy talk about...
The Mobile-Finance Revolution: How Cell Phones Can Spur Development
The roughly 2.5 billion people in the world who live on less than $2 a day are not destined to remain in a state of chronic poverty. Every few years, somewhere between ten and 30 percent of the world's poorest households manage to escape poverty, typically...
The Next Drone Wars: Preparing for Proliferation
During World War II, a top commander in what was then the U.S. Army Air Forces, General Henry "Hap" Arnold, developed a new way to attack U-boat stations and other heavily fortified German positions: he turned old B-17 and B-24 bombers into remotely...
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