Alcohol Health & Research World

Articles from Vol. 19, No. 2, 1995

Alcohol and the Cerebellum
One of the most widely recognized signs of acute alcohol intoxication is staggering gait. The motor incoordination element of intoxication is routinely assessed by highway patrol officers when they use standard tests of stance imbalance (otherwise known...
Alcohol-Induced Sleepiness and Memory Function
Alcohol is known to impair various aspects of cognitive functioning, including learning and memory (Birnbaum and Parker 1977). Alcohol-induced memory impairment has been studied extensively both by researchers and clinicians, partly because memory impairment...
Alcohol-Related Cognitive Impairments
What does it mean to have cognitive impairments? Basically, it means to experience problems with what one knows and how one comes to know it. More formally, the term "cognition" has been defined as "mental activities that involve the acquisition, storage,...
Alcohol-Related Thiamine Deficiency
Alcohol abuse can be associated with structural brain damage and disturbed cognition, memory, intellect, and personality. The clinical features of alcohol's effects on the brain are heterogeneous and include mild to moderate cognitive impairment, amnesia,...
Assessing Cognitive Impairment
Chronic alcohol abuse frequently is accompanied by significant impairment in mental abilities (Parsons and Nixon 1993; Knight and Longmore 1994), and even acute alcohol consumption (i.e., a single drinking episode) temporarily can affect the drinker's...
Cognitive Deficits in Alcoholism
Over the past 20 years, the field of cognitive neuroscience has progressed toward reaching its primary goal of defining what mechanisms in the brain underlie distinct domains of human cognitive functioning, such as components of memory and attention....
Cognitive Impairment in Children of Alcoholics
Between 5 and 10 percent of adults in the United States abuse alcohol or are alcohol dependent as determined by the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition of the American Psychiatric Association...
Event-Related Potentials and Cognitive Function in Alcoholism
Cognitive impairment in alcoholics(1) ranges from severe memory disorders and dementia to subtle impairment of the ability to process and interpret sensory information. A majority of alcoholics may exhibit subtle cognitive impairment. For many years,...
Fitness-for-Duty Testing
Alcohol and other drugs (AOD's) impair cognitive functions and motor skills (Burns and Moskowitz 1980; Miller and Dolan 1974; Parker et al. 1977). Over the past 25 years, the risks associated with AOD-induced impairment have been well documented, especially...
Recovery of Cognitive Functioning in Alcoholics
A quick review of this issue of Alcohol Health & Research World reveals the impact of chronic excessive alcohol use on cognitive functioning. The most severe impairments are the profound memory dysfunction caused by Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (for...
The Role of Liver Disease in Alcohol-Induced Cognitive Defects
Cognitive dysfunction is common among alcoholics; up to 75 percent of detoxified long-term alcohol-dependent patients show symptoms of cognitive impairment (Arria et al. 1990). Several factors have been proposed to contribute to alcohol-induced cognitive...
When Alcoholism Affects Memory Functions
The development of modem imaging techniques makes it possible to examine the brains of subjects who are at different stages of alcoholism and whose medical and mental status can be ascertained at the time of imaging. Thus it is possible to examine directly...
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