Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Articles from Vol. 78, No. 3, March

A Proposal to Declare Neurocysticercosis an International Reportable Disease
Voir page 403 le resume en francais. En la pagina 404 figura un resumen en espanol. Introduction Neurocysticercosis (NCC), defined as the infection of the central nervous system by the larval stage of the intestinal tapeworm Taenia solium, is...
Community-Based Health Care and Development: Exploring the Myths
Sir -- Health, especially the health of children, is a well-recognized entry point for development. There are myriad pathways for moving towards development from health interventions, as demonstrated by pilot projects around the world. Community-based...
Community Care Not to Blame for Increased Offending among the Mentally Ill
The widespread shift in industrialized countries towards community, care for people with schizophrenia is not responsible for an increased rate of criminal convictions in this group over the past 20 years, researchers conclude. Instead, the rise in...
Disease Eradication as a Public Health Strategy: A Case Study of Poliomyelitis Eradication
Voir page 293 le resume en francais. En la pagina 294 figura un resumen en espanol. Introduction "Elimination and eradication are the ultimate goals of public health, evolving naturally from disease control" (1). Despite the humanitarian and...
Elevated Levels of Maternal Anti-Tetanus Toxin Antibodies Do Not Suppress the Immune Response to a Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Polyribosylphosphate-Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine
Voir page 369 le resume en francais. En la pagina 370 figura un resumen en espanol. Introduction Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) is a leading cause of invasive diseases such as meningitis, bacteraemia, epiglottitis, and pneumonia in early...
Eradication of Poliomyelitis in Countries Affected by Conflict
Voir page 335 le resume en francais. En la pagina 336 figura un resumen en espanol. Introduction The global initiative for polio eradication has been extraordinarily successful in interrupting the transmission of the disease in many areas and...
Excluding Polio in Areas of Inadequate Surveillance in the Final Stages of Eradication in China
Voir page 319 le resume en francais. En la pagina 319 figura un resumen en espanol. Introduction Polio eradication efforts in China have been highly successful, with the last case of indigenous wild poliovirus having been reported in September...
Gaps in Our Knowledge about Transmission of Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses
It has long been known that oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) viruses are transmissible "to some degree" between vaccinated individuals and their contacts. This property has generally been considered an advantage of these vaccines, since it can spread...
It Is Too Early to Stop Polio Vaccination
The paper by Wood, Sutter and Dowdle presents a balanced discussion of the hurdles facing the eradication effort (1). However, there are significant omissions, and many questions remain unanswered. The WHO Global Plan of Action for Laboratory Containment...
Malaria Drug Resistance
The principal malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, develops resistance to three first-line antimalarial drugs when mutations occur in just one gene, say researchers in Australia. Moreover, resistance to a fourth and relatively new antimalarial...
Massive Outbreak of Poliomyelitis Caused by Type-3 Wild Poliovirus in Angola in 1999
Voir page 345 le resume en francais. En la pagina 345 figura un resumen en espanol. Introduction Widespread administration of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has led to the virtual elimination of paralytic poliomyelitis in much of the world (1)....
Polio as a Platform: Using National Immunization Days to Deliver Vitamin A Supplements
Introduction In 1988 the 41st World Health Assembly committed WHO to the goal of global eradication of poliomyelitis by 2000 in ways "which strengthen national immunization programmes and health infrastructure"(1). It is believed that efforts to...
Poliomyelitis Surveillance: The Model Used in India for Polio Eradication
Voir page 327 le resume en francais. En la pagina 328 figura un resumen on espanol. Introduction Following the adoption of the global eradication initiative (1) the annual number of polio cases reported worldwide declined from 35 251 in 1988...
Randomized Controlled Trial of Anterior-Chamber Intraocular Lenses in Nepal: Long-Term Follow-Up
Introduction Globally, cataract is the most frequent cause of blindness, affecting more than 20 million people (1). Most of these people live in rural areas of developing countries, where there are limited ophthalmologically trained personnel or...
Rapid Screening for Schistosoma Mansoni in Western Cote d'Ivoire Using a Simple School Questionnaire
Voit page 396 le resume en francais. En la pagina 397 figura un resumen en espanol. Introduction Intestinal schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni is widespread throughout Africa, where it is currently endemic in 40 countries (1). Because...
Stopping Poliovirus Vaccination after Eradication: Issues and Challenges
Voir page 355 le resume en francais. En la pagina 355 figura un resumen en espanol. Introduction In 1988, the World Health Assembly adopted a resolution to eradicate poliomyelitis globally by the year 2000 (1). Responding to this mandate from...
Surveillance of Patients with Acute Flaccid Paralysis in Finland: Report of a Pilot Study
Voir page 302 le resume en francais. En la pagina 303 figura un resumen en espanol. Introduction Poliomyelitis and its causative agents, pathogenic or wild polioviruses, are the targets of the programme for global eradication being coordinated...
The Risks of Stopping Vaccination: Perspectives from the Developing World
The ultimate indirect benefit from the eradication of a vaccine-preventable disease is the ability to make the decision to stop vaccinating and reap the resultant cost and safety gains. However, the spectre of a vulnerable population, progressively...
The Role of Son Preference in Reproductive Behaviour in Pakistan
Voir page 385 le resume en francais. En la pagina 386 figura un resumen en espanol. Introduction Reproductive intentions and behaviour in many developing countries are strongly influenced by the sex of the offspring (1-6). Empirical evidence...
What Laboratory Studies Will Reduce the Risk of Wild Poliovirus Reservoirs Being Missed?
Humans are the only natural host for polioviruses. During the acute non-persistent infection, the virus is transmitted by the host or in the excretions of the host to other persons. The persistence of the virus in the environment is limited in time,...
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