Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Articles from Vol. 79, No. 5, May

A Day in the Life of the World's Anti-TB Drive
In March, WHO and the Stop TB partnership launched a US$ 50 million-a-year initiative to provide free drugs to 10 million tuberculosis patients over the next five years. By 2010, the Global TB Drug Facility, as the initiative is called, aims to reach...
AIDS Vaccine Research Riding High
The announcement in March that the first AIDS vaccine candidate designed primarily for use in East Africa is entering human trials in Kenya, is just the latest in a series of encouraging events that has marked AIDS vaccine research over the past year...
A Revolution in the Management of Diarrhoea
The Lancet has called it the most important medical discovery, of the 20th century (1). It did not come about from a randomized double blind clinical trial or a sophisticated molecular biology experiment, but from the urgent need to manage severe cholera...
Attitudes towards War, Killing, and Punishment of Children among Young People in Estonia, Finland, Romania, the Russian Federation, and the USA
Objective To study the cultural differences in moral disengagement, which lends support to attitudes used to justify violence. Methods We carried out classroom surveys of a total of 3122 students in the USA (Houston, TX, and Washington, DC) and...
Comparison of Generic and Proprietary Sodium Stibogluconate for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Kenya
Objective To compare the use of generic and proprietary sodium stibogluconate for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Methods A total of 102 patients with confirmed kala-azar were treated in a mission hospital in West Pokot region,...
Critical Control Points of Complementary Food Preparation and Handling in Eastern Nigeria
Objective To investigate microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of complementary foods in 120 households in Imo state, Nigeria. Methods The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach...
Estimates of the Maternal Mortality Ratio in Two Districts of the Brong-Ahafo Region, Ghana
Objective To estimate the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) by the sisterhood method in two districts of the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana, and to determine the impact of different assumptions and analytical decisions on these estimates. Methods Indirect...
Focusing Strategies of Condom Use against HIV in Different Behavioural Settings: An Evaluation Based on a Simulation Model(*)
Using a sexually transmitted diseases simulation model (STDSIM), we made projections of HIV spread for four profiles of sexual behaviour reflecting patterns encountered across the developing world: 1) much commercial sex, no short relationships; 2)...
Health and Intellectual Property Rights
A new and comprehensive treaty on intellectual property rights was established in 1994, within the framework of the World Trade Organization (WTO). It is called the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights -- the TRIPS agreement...
Impact of Prepackaging Antimalarial Drugs on Cost to Patients and Compliance with Treatment
Objective To examine the extent to which district health teams could reduce the burden of malaria, a continuing major cause of mortality and morbidity, in a situation where severe resource constraints existed and integrated care was provided. Methods...
Impact of the World Trade Organization TRIPS Agreement on the Pharmaceutical Industry in Thailand
The 1994 World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) established minimum universal standards in all areas of intellectual property. It is intended to implement these standards globally through...
Interpretation of the Mwanza and Rakai STD Trials
Editor--There has been considerable discussion of the contrasting results of the Mwanza and Rakai trials of interventions against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The Mwanza trial showed that improved STD treatment services as recommended by WHO...
Interpretation of the Mwanza and Rakai STI Trials
Editor--In addition to discussing sexual behaviour aspects of the Mwanza and Rakai trials of interventions against sexually transmitted infection (STIs), Christopher Hudson also raises a number of points relating to STI control in developing countries...
Nested Case-Control Study in a Serological Survey to Evaluate the Effectiveness of a Chagas Disease Control Programme in Brazil
Objective To identify risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infections in areas under surveillance in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods A model using a nested case-control design incorporated within a serological survey of schoolchildren...
Obituary
Milton I. Roemer, 1916-2001 Milton I. Roemer, MD, MPH, Professor Emeritus of the UCLA School of Public Health, Department of Health Services, died on 3 January 2001 aged 84 years, of cardiac failure after a brief illness. He had served at all levels...
Oral Fluid Therapy of Cholera among Bangladesh Refugees(1)
INTRODUCTION A crucial field trial of oral electrolyte solutions in the treatment of cholera was carried out in India during the summer of 1971 when the disease appeared in a population of war refugees. Observations made during the epidemic substantiated...
Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in Children Aged 6-9 Years in Wukro, Northern Ethiopia
Objective To determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in northern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out and the data were analysed for 824 (61.5%) of 1339 eligible children for whom there was...
The Challenges Facing Third World Countries in Banning Tobacco
Tobacco is one of the most common hazardous drugs and is widely available in almost all countries. The harmful effects of tobacco are only too common and are well known to all public health workers: tobacco smoking is responsible for lung cancer, chronic...
The Impact of a Clinical Training Unit on Integrated Child Health Care in Mexico
This study had two aims: to describe the activities of a clinical training unit set up for the integrated management of sick children, and to evaluate the impact of the unit after its first four years of operation. The training unit was set up in the...
The World in 2050: More Crowded, Urban and Aged
The world's population -- with today's 6.1 billion already more than twice the 1950 figure -- is likely to grow by another 3 billion in the next half-century, according to a recently released UN projection. Most of the population growth will occur...
Transmission of Helicobacter Pylori: A Role for Food?
Helicobacter pylori colonizes and grows in human gastric epithelial tissue and mucus. Its presence is associated with gastritis and there is substantial evidence that it causes peptic and duodenal ulcers and chronic gastritis. Since 1994, H. pylori...
Water and Health, Hand-in-Hand for a Day
To raise awareness of the connection between water and health, WHO was chosen as lead agency for World Water Day on 22 March. Scores of events, ranging from Internet-based discussions among students to ice-hockey games, music video releases, and the...
Wealth for Health -- a Gates Perspective
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is one of the largest philanthropic organizations in the world. Since its creation in 1999, it has donated over US$ 1.6 billion to health and learning. One of the people in the foundation's driving seat is William...
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