Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Articles from Vol. 85, No. 8, August

Can Malawi's Poor Afford Free Tuberculosis Services? Patient and Household Costs Associated with a Tuberculosis Diagnosis in Lilongwe
Introduction In 2005, the UN Millennium Summit and the Commission for Africa highlighted the need for increased global development assistance to make progress towards achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. However,...
Catastrophic and Poverty Impacts of Health Payments: Results from National Household Surveys in Thailand
Introduction Health care in most Asian countries is financed by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments by individuals. (1,2) A recent study on health equity in 13 countries in the Asia-Pacific region, the EQUITAP project, (3) indicated that Sri Lanka and...
Collaboration between a TB Control Programme and NGOs during Humanitarian Crisis: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Rudi Coninx's paper addresses the challenges facing tuberculosis (TB) control programmes in countries undergoing complex emergencies, particularly the difficulties involved in applying the DOTS strategy during humanitarian crises. This commentary outlines...
Determining the Burden of Tuberculosis in Eritrea: A New approach/Une Nouvelle Approche Pour la Determination De la Charge De Tuberculose En Erythree/Nuevo Metodo Para Determinar la Carga De Tuberculosis En Eritrea
Introduction In 2004, 84% of the population of Eritrea was covered by the directly-observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) programme for the management of tuberculosis (TB) and WHO was notified of 720 new cases of smear-positive TB, giving a case...
Estimated Global Resources Needed to Attain International Malaria Control goals/Estimation Des Ressources Necessaires Au Niveau Mondial Pour Atteindre Les Objectifs Internationaux En Matiere De Lutte Contre le paludisme/Estimacion De Los Recursos Mundiales Necesarios Para Alcanzar Los Objetivos Internacionales De la Lucha Antimalarica
Introduction Globally, there are more than a million malaria-related deaths each year. About four-fifths of these are in Africa. (1) Effective interventions that reduce death and illness from malaria are still not widely accessible in most malaria-endemic...
Evaluating the Potential Impact of the New Global Plan to Stop TB: Thailand, 2004-2005/evaluation De L'impact Du Nouveau Plan Mondial « Halte a la Tuberculose » 2004-2005 En Thailande/Evaluacion del Impacto Potencial del Nuevo Plan Mundial Para Detener la Tuberculosis: Tailandia, 2004-2005
Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's leading causes of severe illness and death, particularly in developing countries. Since 1993, efforts to control TB have focused on a strategy known as DOTS, which emphasizes passive case detection...
Indian Paradise Takes Novel Approach to Mental Health: Beyond the Paradise and Prosperity of the Internationally Known Tourist Destination of Goa Is Another Story-A High Prevalence of Mental Health Problems
Goa, a tiny state on India's western coastline, is one of the country's most affluent and literate, but recent studies have highlighted a high prevalence of depression and stress-related problems, affecting 5-10% of young adults and 15-25% of people...
Mexican Billionaire Invests Millions in Latin American Health: Conducting Research and Developing Programmes Is as Vital to Carlos Slim Helu's New Health Institute as Doling out Big Grants to Improve Health Standards in Developing Nations
After reportedly surpassing Bill Gates as the world's richest man, Mexican telecommunications magnate Carlos Slim Helu is now charting a similar course to the Microsoft guru in the health field, investing millions to improve the well-being of people...
More Medicines for Neglected and Emerging Infectious Diseases
Countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) account for about 80% of gross expenditure in research and development globally, (1) but their collective health research output has not led to new medicines for many of...
Mortality in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1964-2004/mortalite En Republique Islamique d'Iran, 1964-2004/la Mortalidad En la Republica Islamica del Iran Durante El Periodo 1964-2004
Introduction Reliable information on a population's levels and patterns of causes of death is essential for health planning and priority-setting for interventions to control diseases and injuries, and for population-based evaluation of health programmes....
Nuremberg Code Turns 60
This month marks sixty years since the Nuremberg code (1)--the basic text of modern medical ethics--was issued. The principles in this code were articulated in the context of the Nuremberg trials in 1947. We would like to use this anniversary to examine...
Reply to 'Addressing Smoking Cessation in Tuberculosis Control'
We welcome the commentary "Addressing Smoking Cessation in Tuberculosis Control" responding to the Bulletin theme issue on tuberculosis (May 2007), and thank the authors for raising this important issue. If action is not taken to curb the spread...
Resistance and Renewal: Health Sector Reform and Cambodia's National Tuberculosis programme/Resistances Au Renouveau : Conflits Entre la Reforme Du Secteur De la Sante et le Programme National Cambodgien De Lutte Contre la tuberculose/Resistancia Y Renovacion: Reforma del Sector Sanitario Y Programa Nacional Contra la Tuberculosis En Camboya
Introduction In 1993, the Cambodian Ministry of Health and the recently re-established WHO country office relaunched the national tuberculosis (TB) programme, translating into action what had been a rhetorical priority for more than a decade. Despite...
Scaling Up HIV Prevention: Why Routine or Mandatory Testing Is Not Feasible for Sub-Saharan Africa
Introduction Global HIV incidence may have peaked (1) but calls for scaling up prevention have not diminished. The number of new infections worldwide remains high (4.1 million in 2005) with some regions previously unscathed experiencing rising incidences...
Setting International Standards for Verbal Autopsy
In many countries most deaths occur at home. Such countries often have civil registration systems that are limited or non-existent and therefore most deaths go unrecorded. Countries that cannot record the number of people who die or why they die cannot...
Stronger National Plans for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health
[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED] Francisco F. Songane trained as a medical doctor and obstetrician/gynaecologist at the University of Eduardo Mondlane in his native country, Mozambique, and at St. James University Hospital in Leeds, England. He has a Master...
The Case of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste was a Portuguese colony for 400 years, and was under Indonesian occupation for 25 years. After the population's overwhelming vote for independence in August 1999, militia supported by the Indonesian military destroyed...
Tuberculosis in Complex emergencies/Tuberculose Dans Lens Situations D'urgence complexes/La Tuberculosis En Las Emergencias Complejas
In 2004 there were 9 million new cases and approximately 2 million deaths from tuberculosis (TB). Control programmes are difficult at the best of times, but the direct and indirect health and health system effects of complex emergencies complicate...
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