Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Articles from Vol. 81, No. 10, October

AIDS as a Global Emergency
WHO's new Director-General has just declared AIDS to be a global health emergency. This move is not unprecedented but does signal a welcome departure from business as usual. Can declarations change the world? They can if they lead to action commensurate...
A Pioneer in the Quest to Eradicate World Blindness
The late Sir Harold Ridley, who died in 2001 shortly after receiving a "knighthood in recognition of his pioneering work in the correction of cataract blindness, remains known almost exclusively for his invention of the intraocular lens and related...
Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Offer a Much More Promising Alternative
We agree with Robbins et al. that meningococcal disease has posed a recurrent public health problem in the African "meningitis belt" for at least 100 years. This region is characterized by a distinct pattern of meningococcal disease, with annual peaks...
Control of Epidemic Meningitis in Sub-Saharan Africa: Our Solution Is More Practical and Affordable
Robbins et al. propose mass vaccinations with a group A polysaccharide vaccine (target population not stated) plus a four-dose vaccination schedule for children aged <7 years with divalent polysaccharide vaccines as a strategy for preventing group...
Coverage of Pilot Parenteral Vaccination Campaign against Canine Rabies in N'Djamena, Chad
Abstract Canine rabies, and thus human exposure to rabies, can be controlled through mass vaccination of the animal reservoir if dog owners are willing to cooperate. Inaccessible, ownerless dogs, however, reduce the vaccination coverage achieved in...
Dried Venous Blood Samples for the Detection and Quantification of Measles IgG Using a Commercial Enzyme Immunoassay
Objectives To determine whether samples of dried venous blood (DVB) were an acceptable alternative to serum for detecting measles-specific IgG in a commercial enzyme immunoassay. Methods Paired samples of serum and DVB were collected from 98 suspected...
Drug Prices May Be Too High despite WTO Deal
A landmark deal that waives international trade rules may work if implemented in good faith, experts say. Poor countries with no manufacturing capability of their own will be allowed to import cheap copies of patented essential drugs under a complex...
Equitable Access to Scientific and Technical Information for Health
Hippocrates equated scientific truth with mystical knowledge which should be revealed only to the initiated (1). In current thinking, however, scientific and technical information is seen as an archetypal global public good which should be freely available...
France Caught Cold by Heatwave
"Heatwaves are slow and invisible killers that are easy to ignore until it's too late," says Eric Klinenberg, a sociologist at New York University. Nowhere has that been more evident than in France this summer. An estimated 11 435 people, most of...
Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses Strategy: Compliance with Referral and Follow-Up Recommendations in Gezira State, Sudan
Objectives To determine the extent to which families follow referral and follow-up recommendations given in accordance with the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) strategy and the factors that influence families' responses to such...
Intra-Ocular Acrylic Lenses after Cataract Extraction *
FOUNDED BY THOMAS WAKLEY IN 1823 VOL. No. CCLXII VOLUME ONE JANUARY-JUNE 1952 HAROLD RIDLEY M.D. Camb., F.R.C.S. OPTHALMIC SURGEON, ST. THOMAS'S HOSPITAL, LONDON; SURGEON, MOORFIELD, WESTMINSTER AND CENTRAL EYE HOSPITAL, LONDON No surgical...
Meningococcal Meningitis in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case for Mass and Routine Vaccination with Available Polysaccharide Vaccines
Abstract Endemic and epidemic group A meningococcal meningitis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the availability of the safe and inexpensive group A meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine, which is protective...
Meningococcal Meningitis Vaccination: More Information Needed
We are uncertain about many factors surrounding meningococcal meningitis, which hinders the development of effective strategies for its control. For example: * What is the relation between pharyngeal carriage rate in the population and epidemics?...
Meta-Analysis of Residential Exposure to Radon Gas and Lung Cancer
Objectives To investigate the relation between residential exposure to radon and lung cancer. Methods A literature search was performed using Medline and other sources. The quality of studies was assessed. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence...
Potential Impact of Pharmaceuticals on Environmental Health
For much of the last thirty years, research on the effects of chemical pollution of the environment has focused almost exclusively on conventional "priority" pollutants. These pollutants are chemicals that have specific effects on organisms, such as...
Risk Factors for Early Infant Mortality in Sarlahi District, Nepal
Objectives Early infant mortality has not declined as rapidly as child mortality in many countries. Identification of risk factors for early infant mortality may help inform the design of intervention strategies. Methods Over the period 1994-97,...
Routine Vaccination with Polysaccharide Meningococcal Vaccines Is an Ineffective and Possibly Harmful Strategy
"For every complex problem, there is an answer that is clear, simple, and wrong" (Menchen HL, 1880-1956) Robbins et al. suggest that mass campaigns followed by routine vaccination in the meningitis belt would be more effective against epidemic and...
Single-Dose versus Multi-Dose Vaccine Vials for Immunization Programmes in Developing Countries
Abstract Excessive vaccine wastaqe and safety concerns have prompted the international health community to develop and supply vaccines in formats other than the standard multi-dose vial. This article presents a programmatic and economic comparison...
Smallpox and Bioterrorism
Abstract Smallpox was declared to be eradicated on 8 May 1980, during the Thirty-third World Health Assembly. However, concerns about the possible use of the virus as a weapon of bioterrorism have increased in recent years. Governments have responded...
Successful Prevention of Meningitis in Africa Will Need More Than a Vaccination Strategy
Since 1997, Robbins et al. have cogently argued that routine immunization with group A polysaccharide in sub-Saharan Africa would prevent epidemic and endemic meningitis (1, 2). Others have claimed that this recommendation rests on unproven assumptions...
WHO Declares Failure to Deliver AIDS Medicines a Global Health Emergency
At a special session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York on 22 September, WHO declared the failure to expand access to antiretrovirals in the developing world a global health emergency. The announcement was made together with UNAIDS...
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