Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Articles from Vol. 86, No. 8, August

Access to Medicines versus Access to Treatment: The Case of Type 1 Diabetes
Introduction In recent years considerable attention has been paid to the issue of access to medicines. The topic burst into the global public spotlight in 2000 when 39 pharmaceutical companies took the South African government to court over its...
A Personalist Approach to Public-Health ethics/Approche Personnaliste De L'ethique En Sante publique/Enfoque Personalista De la Etica En Salud Publica
The past and present of public health In developed countries, where high standards of living have been achieved, public health is often viewed as a sort of secular faith providing good advice (on nutrition, physical health, longevity, etc.) and...
Clinical Trials in India: Ethical Concerns: Transnational Drug Companies Are Moving Their Clinical Trials Business to India, Giving a New Urgency to Clinical Trials Registry Reform There
According to the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry, an influential national industry association, India is set to grab clinical trials business valued at approximately US$ I billion by 2010, up from US$ 200 million last year, making the...
Declaration of Helsinki: Recommendations Guiding Doctors in Clinical Research
Adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964 INTRODUCTION It is the mission of the doctor to safeguard the health of the people. His knowledge and conscience are dedicated to the fulfillment of this mission. The...
Demographic and Health Surveillance: Longitudinal Ethical Considerations / Surveillance Demographique et Sanitaire : Considerations Ethiques Longitudinales / Consideraciones Eticas En Los Sistemas Iongitudinales De Vigilancia Demografica Y Sanitaria
Introduction Gross health inequalities between the developed and developing world drive the activities of researchers and public-health practitioners worldwide. The need for empirical evidence to guide further research and to direct health interventions...
Denaturalizing Scarcity: A Strategy of Enquiry for Public Health ethics/Denaturalisation Des Penuries : Une Strategie D'enquete Pour Une Ethique De la Sante publique/Desnaturalizar la Escasez: Estrategia De Indagacion Para Una Etica De Salud Publica
Why "denaturalizing scarcity"? In 1995, a heat wave resulted in the deaths of more than 500 people in Chicago, United States of America (USA). Eric Klinenberg's "social autopsy" of this episode points out that "the processes through which Chicagoans...
Drug Donations: What Lies Beneath
Drug donations are necessary and valued when they accurately meet the recipient's needs. However, the lack of international regulation on drug donation procedures allows some entities to take an unfair advantage of the situation. WHO has repeatedly...
Emerging Norms for the Control of Emerging Epidemics
Introduction Recent WHO initiatives, including the revised International Health Regulations (IHR), (1) the final report on Ethical considerations in developing a public health response to pandemic influenza (2) and the interim protocol on Rapid...
Ethical Analysis to Improve Decision-Making on Health technologies/Analyse Ethique Pour L'aide a la Decision a Propos Des Technologies De sante/Analisis Etico Para Mejorar la Adopcion De Decisiones En Materia De Tecnologias Sanitarias
Introduction Health technology assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary field of policy analysis. It studies the implications of the development, diffusion and use of health technology. Its power lies in providing a joint basis for policy discussions...
From Rhetoric to Reality
Mary Robinson was elected the first female President of Ireland in 1990, a position she held until she resigned in 1997 to take up the post of United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, which she held until 2002. The daughter of two physicians,...
Health-Sector Responses to Intimate Partner Violence in Low-And Middle-Income Settings: A Review of Current Models, Challenges and Opportunities / Reponses Du Secteur Sanitaire Aux Violences Exercees Par Les Partenaires Intimes Dans Les Pays a Revenu Faible et Moyen: Examen Des Modeles, Des Difficultes et Des Possibilites Existant Actuellement / Respuestas del Sector
Introduction Over the past 10 years, violence against women has become recognized as a serious public-health issue. (1) Research, initially in North America and Europe, but increasingly from other settings, has helped demonstrate the high prevalence...
Herbal Medicine Research and Global Health: An Ethical analysis/Recherche En Phytotherapie et Sante Dans le Monde : Analyse ethique/Investigacion Fitoterapeutica Y Salud Mundial: Analisis Etico
Introduction Traditional herbal medicines are naturally occurring, plant-derived substances with minimal or no industrial processing that have been used to treat illness within local or regional healing practices. Traditional herbal medicines are...
Integrating Ethics, Health Policy and Health Systems in Low-And Middle-Income Countries: Case Studies from Malaysia and Pakistan/Integration Entre Ethique, Politique Sanitaire et Systemes De Sante Dans Les Pays a Revenu Faible et Moyen : Etudes De Cas En Malaisie et Au Pakistan/Integracion De la Etica, la Politica Sanitaria Y Los Sistemas De Salud En Los Paises De Ingresos Bajos Y Medios: Estudios De Cases De Malasia Y El Pakistan
Introduction High-income countries can learn vital lessons from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) which, through persistence, manage to form much-needed public-health structures that harmonize with pre-existing local public-health systems....
Iranian Health Houses Open the Door to Primary Care: Working in Pairs out of Modest, Village-Based Facilities, the Islamic Republic of Iran's Trained Community Health Workers, the Behvarzan, Provide Basic Health Care to Most of the Country's Rural Population
They have been described as an "incredible masterpiece". The Iranian health houses, conceived and introduced during the 1980-1988 war with Iraq, have been at the centre of a so-called master plan to bring health care to every district. Devised in...
National Bioethical Legislation and Guidelines for Biomedical Research in the Islamic Republic of Iran/Leyes Y Directrices Nacionales De Bioetica Para la Investigacion Biomedica En la Republica Islamica del Iran/Legislation Nationale Sur la Bioethique et Recommandations Pour la Recherche Biomedicale En Republique Islamique d'Iran
Introduction In recent decades, great attention has been paid to ethical issues as an inevitable consequence of emerging biomedical advances. There have been ever-increasing discussions about ethical aspects of this new knowledge in different societies....
Overcoming Migrants' Barriers to Health: With Increasing Numbers of People on the Move, Migrant Health Has Become a Key Global Public-Health Issue
Climate change, global conflict and economic necessity are driving the highest levels of migration in history. According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) some 192 million people are living outside their place of birth, representing...
The Burden of Surgical Conditions and Access to Surgical Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Introduction Surgery is an essential component of health systems but has generally been neglected within global public health. This is despite growing evidence documenting the cost-effectiveness of essential surgical care in low- and middle-income...
The Contribution of Ethics to Public Health
While ethics in health care dates back at least to the times of Hippocrates, Sun Si Miao, (1) and Ibn Sina (Avicenna), (2) the field of "bioethics" did not emerge until after World War Two. The birth of bioethics was stimulated by a confluence of factors....
The Declaration of Helsinki and Public Health
Determining the optimal relationship between public health and individual health is a major ethical challenge for health systems and providers. In theory, there should be no conflict between the two--the public consists of individuals and public health...
The Importance of Public-Health Ethics
Whose responsibility is health? Is it purely a matter of individual choice or do governments have a role to play? What about others, such as businesses, employers and health professionals: do they also have responsibilities? Discussions of these issues...
Using Human Rights to Improve Maternal and Neonatal Health: History, Connections and a Proposed Practical approach/Recours Aux Droits De L'homme Pour Ameliorer la Sante Maternelle et Neonatale : Historique, Liens et Proposition D'approche pratique/Uso De Los Derechos Humanos Para Mejorar la Salud De la Madre Y del Recien Nacido: Antecedentes, Vinculos Y Posible Enfoque Practico
Introduction Maternal and neonatal mortality have barely declined in the past two decades. The most recent estimates indicating that about 536 000 women die every year from pregnancy-related causes demonstrate that, at the global level, maternal...

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