Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Articles from Vol. 81, No. 3, May

Advancing the State of the World's Newborns. (Perspectives)
Despite declines in global mortality rates in infants and children under five years of age in recent decades, neonatal mortality has remained relatively static. Consequently, approximately two-thirds of deaths in infants and over one-third of deaths...
Analysis of the Effects of Malaria Chemoprophylaxis in Children on Haematological Responses, Morbidity and Mortality. (Policy and Practice)
Introduction The literature that describes malaria prophylaxis in children from areas in which malaria is endemic spans 50 years of applied field research. The place of malaria chemoprophylaxis in the overall armamentarium for malaria control has...
Brazil Mobilizes for a War to Save Lives. (News)
In January, the new Brazilian President, Luis Inacio Lula da Silva, announced his top priority with details of his Zero Hunger initiative. In his own words: "We need to defeat hunger, poverty and social exclusion. Our war objective is not to kill anyone...
Efficacy of Oxamniquine and Praziquantel in the Treatment of Schistosoma Mansoni Infection: A Controlled Trial. (Research)
Introduction Schistosomiasis mansoni infection, an endemic disease of worldwide importance in terms of public health, affects large geographical areas in several countries. In Brazil, its prevalence is estimated to be 8-10 million infected people,...
Evaluation of a Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Education Intervention on Diarrhoea in Northern Pakistan. (Research)
Introduction Improvement of public health is the strongest and most frequent argument put forward in support of water and sanitation projects (1). Inadequate water and sanitation services adversely affect the health and socioeconomic development...
Health Research Systems: A Framework for the Future. (Editorials)
Research and its equitable use are an integral part of WHO's work. The Organization's Constitution says that "the extension to all peoples of the benefits of medical, psychological and related knowledge is essential to the fullest attainment of health"...
Health Standards Plummet on Occupied Farms in Zimbabwe. (News)
About 900 000 people, consisting mainly of farm workers and their families, have been displaced by the recent takeover of white-owned commercial farms in Zimbabwe. The occupation of the farms by veteran independence fighters and "land-hungry" villagers...
Healthy Environments for Children. (Editorials)
The state of the world's children is the best measure of human well-being, and the health of children is the best measure of the health of our planet. Clearly, neither planet earth nor children are in a healthy state. The largest single cause of...
Hypothetical Performance of Syndrome-Based Management of Acute Paediatric Admissions of Children Aged More Than 60 Days in a Kenyan District Hospital. (Research)
Introduction Over the last ten years, considerable effort has been put into developing the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) initiative, a generic, but adaptable, approach to the assessment and management of sick children when they...
Implementation and Quantitative Evaluation of Chronic Disease Self-Management Programme in Shanghai, China: Randomized Controlled Trial. (Research)
Introduction Chronic diseases--mainly heart disease, stroke, cancer, and lung disease--are becoming leading causes of disability and premature death in China. Noncommunicable diseases accounted for 81% of total deaths in China in 1996 (1). Chronic...
Internally Displaced People: A Global Survey
Author: Global IDP Project & Norwegian Refugee Council--second edition Publisher: Earthscan, London, UK; Sterling, Virginia, USA. (www.earthscan.co.uk) Hb ISBN 1-85283-953-1 price UK 55 [pounds sterling] Pb ISBN 1-85283-952-3 price UK 19.95 [pounds...
Management of Acute Respiratory Infections by Community Health Volunteers: Experience of Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC). (Research)
Introduction Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are recognized widely as the leading cause of mortality among children in most developing countries (1-5). Poverty, overcrowding, air pollution, malnutrition, harmful traditional practices, and delayed...
New Water Forum Will-Repeat Old Message. (Editorials)
Background documents for the World Summit for Sustainable Development indicated that "addressing the water needs of the poor through concerted global action has not been given enough priority". The same assertion will be made at the forthcoming 3rd...
The Global Burden of Diarrhoeal Disease, as Estimated from Studies Published between 1992 and 2000. (Policy and Practice)
Introduction Diarrhoea is one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality among children in the developing world. In 1982, on the basis of a review of active surveillance data from studies conducted in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, it was estimated...
The Healthy Cities Approach-Reflections on a Framework for Improving Global Health. (Perspectives)
The roots of the Healthy Cities concept may be traced back to 1844, when the Health of Towns Association was formed in the United Kingdom to deliberate on Edwin Chadwick's reports about poor living conditions in towns and cities. The revival of those...
The Singapore Tuberculosis Elimination Programme: The First Five Years. (Policy and Practice)
Introduction Singapore is an island city-state with a total population of about 4 million, of whom 3.26 million are resident, and 0.74 million non-residents on long-term employment, student or social visit passes. Ethnically the resident population...
Two New Reports Conclude That the Health Costs of War Are Unaffordable. (News)
A war on Iraq could cause half a million deaths and devastate the lives, health and environment of the combatants, Iraqi civilians, and people in neighbouring countries and beyond. The details are examined in an independent report entitled Collateral...
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